Click here return to the Hualin main page.

Click here return to the Hualin E-Journal Vol 4.1 Table of Contents page.


Hualin International Journal of Buddhist Studies 4.1 (2021): 356–380;
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buddhist Worldmaking Programs & Tiantai/Chontae/Tendai Buddhism)

Download full text PDF


The Merging of Tiantai and Vinaya: The Monks of Ximing Monastery and Mount Tiantai

ZHAN Ru 湛如
Peking University

Abstract: The merging of Tiantai and Vinaya ideologies represents a defining characteristic of the Tiantai school during the Song dynasty. When did this merging begin? This study intends to conduct some preliminary investigations on this topic. The paper will divide the subject into three parts: the first analyzes the transmission and lineage of the Ximing Monastery’s 西明寺 Vinaya monks. Although Ximing Monastery represented a vital center for Vinaya study during the medieval period, its monastery’s transmission lineage remains unclear. This study focuses chronologically on sorting out the Vinaya monks stationed at Ximing Monastery. Secondly, this study traces the trajectories of the monks of Ximing Monastery who spent time at Guoqing Monastery 國清寺. By investigating their trajectories, the study forms a clearer picture of the contributions made by Vinaya monks of Ximing Monastery to the Vinaya studies of Zhejiang. Lastly, this study examines the merging of the Tiantai and Vinaya traditions. The study will examine the process of those Vinaya monks of Ximing Monastery who gradually shifted towards the Tiantai teachings. Through the investigation of the above aspects, this study will offer a clearer understanding of the relationship between the Vinaya monks of Ximing Monastery and Mount Tiantai, and thus will advance our knowledge on the integration of the Vinaya of Tiantai teachings in this period.

Keywords: Tiantai 天台, Ximing Monastery 四明寺, Guoqing Monastery 國清寺, Vinaya Buddhism 律學


About the Author: Zhan Ru 湛如 is a Professor in Peking University’s School of Foreign Languages. Additionally, he is a vice president of the Buddhist Association of China and vice president of the Peking University Orientalism Research Institute. His areas of research include: Buddhist and Buddhist literature, the Indian Ministry of Buddhism, Dunhuang Buddhism, Buddhist system.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.