Hualin International Journal of Buddhist Studies: Style Sheet

Click here return to the Hualin main page.





Paper size: Manuscripts should be typed double spaced on A4 size paper with a margin of about 3 cm. all round. Please specify the type of software used.

Spelling: British (The Concise Oxford Dictionary and The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors). Please use British style quotations.

Tables: Tables, maps, and figures are to be numbered and have a heading/caption. Do NOT place them in the body of the text; instead, place them at the end of the manuscript. After reformatting, we shall insert them into the text during page layout.

Keywords, abstract, and short title: Please provide between 3–7 keywords, an abstract of no more than 180 words, and a 5–7 words short title.

Notes: Use footnotes, not endnotes. To make a reference, please use (a) the author’s last name + (b) an abbreviation of the title of the book or article + (c) page number. For example:

  1. John P. Dean and Alex Rosen, A Manual of Intergroup Relations (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955), 187 can be referred to as: Dean and Rosen, Manual, 187;
  2. E. M. Mendelson, ‘A Messianic Buddhist Association in Upper Burma’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 24, no. 1: 570 can be referred to as: Mendelson, ‘A Messianic Buddhist Association’, 570.

For referring to a primary source, use the Romanized (not English) title  + juan number + page number (of the edition used). E.g., Wei shu 13.321.

* in particular, citation from the Taisho Canon: A citation should include the Romanized (not English) title,  number, volume, juan/fascicle, number, page, column and line number: e.g., Xu Gaoseng zhuan, T no. 2060, 50: 21.564a18–565b10.

When using abbreviations (e.g., T, DZ, X), please note your abbreviation in a footnote when it is first used. Include the complete citation in a separate “Abbreviations” section of the bibliography, and in your “Modern Studies” or “Secondary Sources” section.

Footnote example:

  1. T = Taishō shinshū daizōkyō (see 3. Secondary Sources, Takakusu & Watanabe, et al.)

Corresponding bibliography entry:

Takakusu Junjirō 高楠順次郎, and Watanabe Kaigyoku 渡邊海旭, eds. Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新修大藏經 [Buddhist Canon Compiled under the Taishō Era (1912–1926)]. 100 vols. Tokyo: Taishō issaikyō kankōkai 大正一切經刊行會, 1924–1932.

Romanization: Please use pinyin to romanize terms of Chinese origin; for Japanese terms, please follow the usage of Kenkyusha’s Japanese-English Dictionary (e.g., Jinbun rather than Jimbun). The first appearance of a romanized term should be followed by the corresponding Chinese or Japanese character/s. For Korean terms, please use the McCune–Reischauer system. For example, Romanize 崔致遠 as Ch’oe Ch’iwŏn.

Diacritics: Please use full diacritical marks and use the Times New Roman Extended font for diacritics (please contact us should you have any questions as to how to install this program). Diacritics are not required for pinyin transliteration.

Buddhist terms: A Buddhist term that has entered the English vocabulary need not be italicized, but full diacritics should be kept intact. Please refer to Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 5.2 (1982), 141–42, for a complete list of such terms.

Language abbreviations:

  • Chinese – Ch.
  • Japanese – Jp.
  • Korean – Kor.
  • Sanskrit – Skt.
  • Tibetan – Tib.

Translation: Please see this Translator Guideline for details.

Bibliographies/References: Primary sources and secondary sources shall be presented separately. When appropriate, Chinese/Japanese/Korean characters shall be included for the names of publishing houses in East Asia. See examples below.

  • Primary sources:
    1. Only publications prior to 1911 (pre-modern) can be categorized as Primary sources. Their modern editions (or their translations) shall go to secondary sources.
    2. Primary sources should be listed first by the text titles, then by author names.
    3. For primary sources, juan numbers must be provided whenever appropriate.
    4. Primary East Asian (EA) sources shall be presented in the following way:
      • 1. Pinyin/Romanization of the EA title + 2. original characters of the title + 3. English translation + 4. juan 卷 number + 5. names of author(s) or translators + 6. completion date of the work + 7. information on the edition used. Example 1:
        Shishuo xinyu 世說新語 [New Account of Tales of the World]. 10 juan. By Liu Yiqing 劉義慶 (403–444) et al., ca. 430. References made to Yu Jiaxi 余嘉錫, Zhou Zumo 周祖謨, and Yu Shuyi 余淑宜 (annotated), Shishuo xinyu jianshu 世說新語箋疏 [Notes and Commentaries to the New Account of the Tales of the World]. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe 上海古籍出版社, 1993.
      • * in particular, citation from the Taisho Canon: A citation should include Pinyin/Romanization of the title + 2. original characters of the title + 3. Sanskrit and/or English translation + 4. juan 卷 number + 5. names of author(s) or translators + 6. completion date of the work + 7. information on the edition used. Example 2:
        Dousha jing 兜沙經 [Skt. Daśabhūmika]. 1 juan. Trans. Lokakṣema (Zhi Loujiachen 支婁迦讖; active in 2nd c.) between 147 and 186. T no. 280, vol. 10.
  • Secondary sources: The following styles should be followed:
    • Book:
      Marx, Karl, and Frederick Engels. The German Ideology. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1977.
    • Article in volume of collected works:
      Feith, H., and A. Smith. ‘Indonesia’. In Southeast Asia: Documents of Political Development and Change, edited by R.M. Smith, 99–110. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970.
    • Article in periodical:
      Mendelson, E. M. ‘A Messianic Buddhist Association in Upper Burma’. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 24.1 (1961): 560–80.
    • Dissertation:
      Puru Shotam, Nirmala. ‘The Social Negotiation of Language in the Singaporean Everyday Life World’. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, 1987.
    • Photocopied material:
      Moore, Philip S. ‘Academic Development: University of Notre Dame: Past, Present, and Future’. Mimeographed. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame, 1960.Yang, Tracy. ‘Crisis, Contagion, and East Asian Stock Markets’. ISEAS Working Papers on Economics and Finance, no. 1. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002.
    • East Asian language books:
      Kohō Chisan 孤峰智璨. Zenshū-shi: Indo, Shina, Nihon 禅宗史——印度、 支那、日本 [A History of Zen: India, China, Japan]. Tokyo: Kōyūkan 光融館, 1919.
    • East Asian language articles:
      Huang Xinyang 黃信洋. ‘Duochong rentong de shehui sixiang kao’ 多重認同的社會思想考 [An Examination of Multiple Identities in Social Thought]. Shehui lilun xuebao 社會理論學報 [Journal of Social Theory] 20.1 (2009): 79–96.
    • East Asian language book chapters:
      Wang Bangwei 王邦維. ‘Biyushi yu fodian zhong biyu de yunyong’ 譬喻師與佛典中譬喻的運用 [Dārṣṭāntikas and the Application of Story Telling in Buddhist Literature]. In Fojiao shenhua yanjiu: Wenben, tuxiang, chuanshuo, yu iishi 佛教神話研究:文本、圖像、傳說與歷史 [Studies on Buddhist Myths: Texts, Pictures, Traditions and History], edited by Wang Bangwei 王邦維, Chen Jinhua 陳金華, and Chen Ming 陳明, 1–12. Shanghai: Zhongxi shuju 中西書局, 2013.