《華林國際佛學學刊》:電子期刊 第一卷‧第二期, 任平山

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第一卷‧第二期(2018):105–165; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201810_1(2).0004
(本文屬於專刊《佛教藝術》

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克孜爾壁畫中的蛇與龍Murals of Serpents and Dragons in the Kizil Grottos)

任平山(REN Pingshan)
西南交通大學(Southwest Jiaotong University)

摘要:佛教話語中的“那伽”,漢語意譯為“龍”,在古印度和東南亞美術中常以眼鏡蛇形象指代,漢地佛教美術則更多表現為中國式龍神。新疆克孜爾石窟中常繪“那伽”,如本生壁畫大施抒海、龍救商人;佛傳壁畫龍王守護、降伏火龍、龍王作橋、龍王問偈等等。克孜爾壁畫中的“那伽”總體更近蛇形,但龜茲畫家也試圖將之與真實蛇類予以區別,形象來源頗復雜。克孜爾壁畫中有兩類蛇形圖像主題不明:其一繪製群蛇各自盤繞;其二表現人類虐蛇之景。德國學者對其有過推測,國內學界過去未予採納。本文通過比對圖像和佛經文本,提出了自己的看法。

Nāga, or long 龍 in Chinese, is often depicted as cobras in the ancient Indian and Southeastern Asian art, or as dragon in the Chinese art. In the Kizil Grottos in Xinjiang, the nāga is depicted in a range of themes, including the jataka story of Dashi emptying the ocean or the nāga saving merchants; or the story of the nāga king protecting Buddha Śākyamuni from the rain, or Buddha Śākyamuni subduing a fiery nāga, or the story of the nāga king turning himself to a bridge for Buddha Śākyamuni, or making inquiry to Buddha Śākyamuni in verses. In the Kizil Grottoes, the Kucha painters depict the nāga as having the form of a serpent, while still distinguishing it from a real serpent; thus, the origin for the depiction of the nāga is complex. In the Kizil murals, there are two imageries whose themes are still unclear: the imagery of a group of serpents winding around themselves and the imagery of humans torturing serpents. German scholars have hypothesized about these imageries, but their opinions are not shared by Chinese scholars. In this article, after comparing the murals with Buddhist sūtras, I put forth my own opinions.

關鍵詞Keywords):克孜爾石窟(Kizil Caves)、壁畫(murals)、本生(jataka tales)、蛇(nāga)、龍(dragon)

 

關於作者:(1975– )江西南昌人,西南交通大學建築與設計學院美術學系副教授。2000–2004就讀于四川大學藝術學院,研習中國美術史論。2004–2007年就讀於中央美術學院,研習中國宗教美術史,獲文學博士學位。主要從事佛教美術研究,近年研究以新疆壁畫為焦點。代表論文有《吳越阿育王塔四本生圖辨》(2019)、《吐魯番壁畫善財童子五十三參——葛籣威德爾筆記小桃兒溝石窟圖考》(2018)、《庫木吐喇第75窟——敦煌寫本P2649V的龜茲圖現》(2015)、《重提吐火羅——尉遲乙僧原籍考注》(2011)等。

 

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