《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第一卷‧第二期, 任平山

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第一卷‧第二期(2018):105–165; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201810_1(2).0004
(本文属于专刊《佛教艺术》

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克孜尔壁画中的蛇与龙(Murals of Serpents and Dragons in the Kizil Grottos)

任平山(REN Pingshan)
西南交通大学
(Southwest Jiaotong University)

摘要(Abstract):佛教话语中的“那伽”,汉语意译为“龙”,在古印度和东南亚美术中常以眼镜蛇形象指代,汉地佛教美术则更多表现为中国式龙神。新疆克孜尔石窟中常绘“那伽”,如本生壁画大施抒海、龙救商人;佛传壁画龙王守护、降伏火龙、龙王作桥、龙王问偈等等。克孜尔壁画中的“那伽”总体更近蛇形,但龟兹画家也试图将之与真实蛇类予以区别,形象来源颇复杂。克孜尔壁画中有两类蛇形图像主题不明:其一绘制群蛇各自盘绕;其二表现人类虐蛇之景。德国学者对其有过推测,国内学界过去未予采纳。本文通过比对图像和佛经文本,提出了自己的看法。

Nāga, or long 龍 in Chinese, is often depicted as cobras in the ancient Indian and Southeastern Asian art, or as dragon in the Chinese art. In the Kizil Grottos in Xinjiang, the nāga is depicted in a range of themes, including the jataka story of Dashi emptying the ocean or the nāga saving merchants; or the story of the nāga king protecting Buddha Śākyamuni from the rain, or Buddha Śākyamuni subduing a fiery nāga, or the story of the nāga king turning himself to a bridge for Buddha Śākyamuni, or making inquiry to Buddha Śākyamuni in verses. In the Kizil Grottoes, the Kucha painters depict the nāga as having the form of a serpent, while still distinguishing it from a real serpent; thus, the origin for the depiction of the nāga is complex. In the Kizil murals, there are two imageries whose themes are still unclear: the imagery of a group of serpents winding around themselves and the imagery of humans torturing serpents. German scholars have hypothesized about these imageries, but their opinions are not shared by Chinese scholars. In this article, after comparing the murals with Buddhist sūtras, I put forth my own opinions.

关键词(Keywords):克孜尔石窟(Kizil Caves)、壁画(murals)、本生(jataka tales)、蛇(nāga)、龙(dragon)

 

关于作者:(1975– )江西南昌人,西南交通大学建筑与设计学院美术学系副教授。 2000–2004就读于四川大学艺术学院,研习中国美术史论。 2004–2007年就读于中央美术学院,研习中国宗教美术史,获文学博士学位。主要从事佛教美术研究,近年研究以新疆壁画为焦点。代表论文有《吴越阿育王塔四本生图辨》(2019)、《吐鲁番壁画善财童子五十三参——葛籣威德尔笔记小桃儿沟石窟图考》(2018)、《库木吐喇第75窟——敦煌写本P2649V的龟兹图现》(2015)、《重提吐火罗——尉迟乙僧原籍考注》(2011)等。

 

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