《華林國際佛學學刊》:電子期刊 第一卷‧第二期, 韋正

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第一卷‧第二期(2018):241–257; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201810_1(2).0007
(本文屬於專刊《佛教藝術》

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炳靈寺169窟第6龕的年代問題——兼及有關佛經的形成和流傳時間(The Question of the Dating of Bingling Temple’s Cave 169, Niche 6 and its Connection to the Time of the Composition and Dissemination of Several Buddhist Scriptures)

韋正 (WEI Zheng)
北京大學(Peking University)

摘要(Abstract):炳靈寺169 窟“建弘元年”(420)題記為“建弘五年”(424)的可能性大。與第6 龕相距最近的不是西方三聖雕塑,而是壁畫釋迦牟尼佛和彌勒菩薩。在第6 龕塑像與釋迦、彌勒壁畫之間還有壁畫十方佛。佛馱(陀)跋陀羅譯《大方廣佛華嚴經》不太可能在建弘元年就傳播到河湟地區。西方三聖塑像也與《大方廣佛華嚴經》始譯年代不同。“建弘五年”題記中提及“慈氏”,這正好與壁畫中的彌勒菩薩相應。因此,“建弘五年”題記所指當是壁畫釋迦、彌勒與十方佛;第6 龕的年代要晚,大約相當於雲岡石窟早中期。這有利於近代學者將現行2 卷本題曹魏康僧鎧譯《無量壽經》認定為劉宋早年譯本的判斷。十方佛名當與晉譯《大方廣佛華嚴經》有關,其傳播到河湟地區,當與東晉南朝經益州與吐谷渾等地保持良好關係有關。

There is a strong likelihood that the inscription ‘First Year of the Jianhong 建弘 Reign’ (420) in Cave 169 of Bingling Temple 炳靈寺 should actually be read as ‘Fifth Year of the Jianhong Reign’. Nearest to Niche 6 in the cave is not the statue of the Three Sages of the Western Lands, but murals of Śākyamuni Buddha and Maitreya Bodhisattva. Between the statue and the murals of the Śākyamuni Buddha and Maitreya, there is also a mural of the Buddhas of the Ten Directions. It is unlikely that Buddhabhadra’s translation of the Avataṃsaka Sūtra would have at that point already been disseminated throughout the Hehuang 河湟 region. The date of the statue of the Three Sages of West and that of the translation of the Avataṃsaka Sūtra are also different. The Jianhong inscription mentions a ‘Compassionate One’, which corresponds to the murals of Maitreya Bodhisattva. Consequently, the ‘fifth year of the Jianhong Reign’ inscription should correspond to the murals of Śākyamuni Buddha, Maitreya Bodhisattva, and the Buddhas of the Ten Directions; the dating of Cave 6 must be later, roughly equivalent to the early or middle periods of the Yungang 雲崗 Grottoes. This analysis supports the judgment of modern scholars that identifies the extent 2-juan version of the Wuliangshou jing 無量壽經 [Sutra of Immeasurable Life], translated by Kang Sengkai 康僧鎧 (Saṃghavarman) of Cao Wei 曹魏, as a translation from the early Liu Song Dynasty. The names of the Buddhas of the Ten Directions (十方佛名) are related to the Jin translation of the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, and their dissemination into the Hehuang area should be seen as having to do with the maintenance of good relationships between the Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties and the Tuyuhun 吐谷渾, across the Yizhou 益州 frontier.

關鍵詞(Keywords):炳靈寺169 窟第6 龕(Niche 6, Cave 169, Bingling Temple)、“建弘”年號題記(the “Jianhong” name inscription)、《華嚴經》(AvataṃsakaSūtra)、《無量壽經》(Wuliangshou jing

 

關於作者:北京大學考古文博學院教授、博士生導師。主要從事秦漢、魏晉南北朝時期的考古與美術研究。出版《六朝墓葬的考古學研究》、《魏晉南北朝考古》、《將毋同一一魏晉南北朝的圖像與歷史》等學術專著,發表論著數十篇,主要涉及秦漢魏晉南北朝時期的城市形態、墓葬制度、文化藝術、對外交流等方面。主持洛陽龍門唐代香山寺等重要遺址的發掘,組織了敦煌佛爺廟灣魏晉墓群、南北朝墓葬禮制研究等重要研究工作。

 

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