《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第一卷‧第二期, 韦正

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第一卷‧第二期(2018):241–257; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201810_1(2).0007
(本文属于专刊《佛教艺术》

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炳灵寺169窟第6龛的年代问题——兼及有关佛经的形成和流传时间The Question of the Dating of Bingling Temple’s Cave 169, Niche 6 and its Connection to the Time of the Composition and Dissemination of Several Buddhist Scriptures

韦正 (Wei Zheng)
北京大学(Peking University)

摘要(Abstract):炳灵寺169 窟“建弘元年”(420)题记为“建弘五年”(424)的可能性大。与第6 龛相距最近的不是西方三圣雕塑,而是壁画释迦牟尼佛和弥勒菩萨。在第6 龛塑像与释迦、弥勒壁画之间还有壁画十方佛。佛驮(陀)跋陀罗译《大方广佛华严经》不太可能在建弘元年就传播到河湟地区。西方三圣塑像也与《大方广佛华严经》始译年代不同。 “建弘五年”题记中提及“慈氏”,这正好与壁画中的弥勒菩萨相应。因此,“建弘五年”题记所指当是壁画释迦、弥勒与十方佛;第6 龛的年代要晚,大约相当于云冈石窟早中期。这有利于近代学者将现行2 卷本题曹魏康僧铠译《无量寿经》认定为刘宋早年译本的判断。十方佛名当与晋译《大方广佛华严经》有关,其传播到河湟地区,当与东晋南朝经益州与吐谷浑等地保持良好关系有关。

There is a strong likelihood that the inscription ‘First Year of the Jianhong 建弘 Reign’ (420) in Cave 169 of Bingling Temple 炳靈寺 should actually be read as ‘Fifth Year of the Jianhong Reign’. Nearest to Niche 6 in the cave is not the statue of the Three Sages of the Western Lands, but murals of Śākyamuni Buddha and Maitreya Bodhisattva. Between the statue and the murals of the Śākyamuni Buddha and Maitreya, there is also a mural of the Buddhas of the Ten Directions. It is unlikely that Buddhabhadra’s translation of the Avataṃsaka Sūtra would have at that point already been disseminated throughout the Hehuang 河湟 region. The date of the statue of the Three Sages of West and that of the translation of the Avataṃsaka Sūtra are also different. The Jianhong inscription mentions a ‘Compassionate One’, which corresponds to the murals of Maitreya Bodhisattva. Consequently, the ‘fifth year of the Jianhong Reign’ inscription should correspond to the murals of Śākyamuni Buddha, Maitreya Bodhisattva, and the Buddhas of the Ten Directions; the dating of Cave 6 must be later, roughly equivalent to the early or middle periods of the Yungang 雲崗 Grottoes. This analysis supports the judgment of modern scholars that identifies the extent 2-juan version of the Wuliangshou jing 無量壽經 [Sutra of Immeasurable Life], translated by Kang Sengkai 康僧鎧 (Saṃghavarman) of Cao Wei 曹魏, as a translation from the early Liu Song Dynasty. The names of the Buddhas of the Ten Directions (十方佛名) are related to the Jin translation of the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, and their dissemination into the Hehuang area should be seen as having to do with the maintenance of good relationships between the Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties and the Tuyuhun 吐谷渾, across the Yizhou 益州 frontier.

关键词(Keywords):炳灵寺169 窟第6 龛(Niche 6, Cave 169, Bingling Temple)、“建弘”年号题记(the “Jianhong” name inscription)、《华严经》(Avataṃsaka Sūtra)、《无量寿经》(Wuliangshou jing

 

关于作者:北京大学考古文博学院教授、博士生导师。主要从事秦汉、魏晋南北朝时期的考古与美术研究。出版《六朝墓葬的考古学研究》、《魏晋南北朝考古》、《将毋同一一魏晋南北朝的图像与历史》等学术专著,发表论著数十篇,主要涉及秦汉魏晋南北朝时期的城市形态、墓葬制度、文化艺术、对外交流等方面。主持洛阳龙门唐代香山寺等重要遗址的发掘,组织了敦煌佛爷庙湾魏晋墓群、南北朝墓葬礼制研究等重要研究工作。

 

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