《華林國際佛學學刊》:電子期刊 第一卷‧第二期, 張乃翥

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第一卷‧第二期(2018):258–316; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201810_1(2).0008
(本文屬於專刊《佛教藝術》

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西域藝術風尚與洛陽中古石刻美術之互動The Interplay between the Art of the Western Regions and the Chinese Art in the Medieval Period: The Case of the Stone Art in Luoyang

張乃翥(ZHANG Naizhu)
龍門研究院(Longmen Grottoes Academy)

摘要(Abstract):文物遺跡的系統考察顯示,在兩漢以降西方美術時尚東漸漢地的過程中,東方藝術之接納西域文化首先是從美術題材的汲取與創作技巧的消化開始的。期間出現于漢地文化圈石刻裝飾藝術中的美術題材,諸如千佛圖、飛天、伎樂天人、蓮花、神異動物等等佛教藝術樣本,及卷草紋、連珠紋、忍冬紋、水波紋、幾何紋、其他禽獸紋樣、神異動物紋樣等等西域世俗藝術樣本,都是異域文化題材移植東方的結果。而摻雜其中的四神、十二生肖等漢地傳統 紋樣,則體現出東方美術創作採用西域表現技法的情勢。

以洛陽石刻文物實例為線索,我們的研究結果表明,這類呈現出濃鬱“密體意致”的美術作品,充滿了域外文化情調的審美意境。它們貫穿于魏晉- 盛唐之際包括宗教和世俗美術在內的一代主流造型藝術的創作實踐中,從而形成此間中原乃至中國美術格調的主流時尚。

這樣看來,西域具有“密體意致”的美術傳統,對於亙久以來 漢地“寬鬆律度”美術模式的衝擊,正是東方審美世界裏文化取向的動態轉移。

Archaeological research reveals that after the Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E.–220 A.D.), as the art from the Western Regions gradually shifted eastward, China started to accept this influence by assimilating themes and techniques of the ‘Western’ art. Among the stone-carved decorative arts in the Chinese cultural sphere, we find such Western Buddhist elements as the Thousand Buddhas, flying celestials, heavenly music performers, lotus and mythical creatures, as well as Western secular graphic patterns, such as plant-scrolls, bead pattern, honeysuckle pattern, ripple pattern, geometric pattern as well as animal pattern and mythical creature pattern. These elements attest the implantation of the foreign art in the Chinese art. Moreover, these Western elements blend in with the traditional Chinese elements such as the Four Gods or the Twelve Zodiacs, showing the proclivity at the time to mix the South and Central Asian artistic techniques with their Chinese counterparts. This article focuses on the stone art in Luoyang and observes that these artworks are marked by their elaborate details and a sense of gracefulness, which is a reflection of the exotic aesthetics of the Western Regions. Such style has apparently become part of the mainstream artistic style in China, either in religious or secular art, during the Northern and Southern Dynasties (220–589) and the heyday of the Tang Dynasty (618–907). In other words, this style has become mainstream in China. This phenomenon bespeaks the dynamical transition that the Eastern aesthetics underwent, as the regulated and plain style of the Chinese art was challenged by the elaborate and graceful style from the Western Regions.

關鍵詞Keywords):洛陽(Luoyang)、絲綢之路(Silk Road)、文化交流(Cultural communication)、密體意致(exotic aesthetics)、石刻藝術(stone art)

 

關於作者:1981年洛陽大學中文系畢業,於龍門石窟研究院從事文化遺產的學術研究至今,副研究員。中國考古學會會員,中國魏晉南北朝史學會會員,中國唐史學會會員,中國海外交通史學會會員,中國敦煌吐魯番學會理事。絲綢之路沿線的文化交流和西域文明的東方傳播,是其幾十年來學術研究的重點方向。30多年來在海內外發表學術論文百餘篇,出版學術著作13部。曾應邀赴新加坡、韓國、意大利、奧地利、俄羅斯進行國際學術交流和講學。並訪問印度、斯里蘭卡及歐洲諸國的眾多文化遺產和博物館。目前正在從事的學術著述,是《隋唐洛陽佛教寺院史料集成》,業已完成220萬字的史料輯錄。

 

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