《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第一卷‧第二期, 张乃翥

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第一卷‧第二期(2018):258–316; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201810_1(2).0008
(本文属于专刊《佛教艺术》

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西域艺术风尚与洛阳中古石刻美术之互动The Interplay between the Art of the Western Regions and the Chinese Art in the Medieval Period: The Case of the Stone Art in Luoyang

张乃翥(Zhang Naizhu)
龙门研究院
(Longmen Grottoes Academy)

摘要(Abstract):文物遗迹的系统考察显示,在两汉以降西方美术时尚东渐汉地的过程中,东方艺术之接纳西域文化首先是从美术题材的汲取与创作技巧的消化开始的。期间出现于汉地文化圈石刻装饰艺术中的美术题材,诸如千佛图、飞天、伎乐天人、莲花、神异动物等等佛教艺术样本,及卷草纹、连珠纹、忍冬纹、水波纹、几何纹、其他禽兽纹样、神异动物纹样等等西域世俗艺术样本,都是异域文化题材移植东方的结果。而掺杂其中的四神、十二生肖等汉地传统 纹样,则体现出东方美术创作采用西域表现技法的情势。

以洛阳石刻文物实例为线索,我们的研究结果表明,这类呈现出浓郁“密体意致”的美术作品,充满了域外文化情调的审美意境。它们贯穿于魏晋- 盛唐之际包括宗教和世俗美术在内的一代主流造型艺术的创作实践中,从而形成此间中原乃至中国美术格调的主流时尚。

这样看来,西域具有“密体意致”的美术传统,对于亘久以来 汉地“宽松律度”美术模式的冲击,正是东方审美世界里文化取向的动态转移

Archaeological research reveals that after the Han Dynasty (202 B.C.E.–220 A.D.), as the art from the Western Regions gradually shifted eastward, China started to accept this influence by assimilating themes and techniques of the ‘Western’ art. Among the stone-carved decorative arts in the Chinese cultural sphere, we find such Western Buddhist elements as the Thousand Buddhas, flying celestials, heavenly music performers, lotus and mythical creatures, as well as Western secular graphic patterns, such as plant-scrolls, bead pattern, honeysuckle pattern, ripple pattern, geometric pattern as well as animal pattern and mythical creature pattern. These elements attest the implantation of the foreign art in the Chinese art. Moreover, these Western elements blend in with the traditional Chinese elements such as the Four Gods or the Twelve Zodiacs, showing the proclivity at the time to mix the South and Central Asian artistic techniques with their Chinese counterparts. This article focuses on the stone art in Luoyang and observes that these artworks are marked by their elaborate details and a sense of gracefulness, which is a reflection of the exotic aesthetics of the Western Regions. Such style has apparently become part of the mainstream artistic style in China, either in religious or secular art, during the Northern and Southern Dynasties (220–589) and the heyday of the Tang Dynasty (618–907). In other words, this style has become mainstream in China. This phenomenon bespeaks the dynamical transition that the Eastern aesthetics underwent, as the regulated and plain style of the Chinese art was challenged by the elaborate and graceful style from the Western Regions.

关键词(Keywords):洛阳(Luoyang)、丝绸之路(Silk Road)、文化交流(Cultural communication)、密体意致(exotic aesthetics)、石刻艺术(stone art)

 

关于作者:1981年洛阳大学中文系毕业,于龙门石窟研究院从事文化遗产的学术研究至今,副研究员。中国考古学会会员,中国魏晋南北朝史学会会员,中国唐史学会会员,中国海外交通史学会会员,中国敦煌吐鲁番学会理事。丝绸之路沿线的文化交流和西域文明的东方传播,是其几十年来学术研究的重点方向。 30多年来在海内外​​发表学术论文百余篇,出版学术著作13部。曾应邀赴新加坡、韩国、意大利、奥地利、俄罗斯进行国际学术交流和讲学。并访问印度、斯里兰卡及欧洲诸国的众多文化遗产和博物馆。目前正在从事的学术著述,是《隋唐洛阳佛教寺院史料集成》,业已完成220万字的史料辑录。

 

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