《華林國際佛學學刊》:電子期刊 第一卷‧第二期, 苗利輝

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第一卷‧第二期(2018):79–104; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201810_1(2).0003
(本文屬於專刊《佛教藝術》

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龜茲佛教淨土藝術——以龜茲石窟為中心The Pure Land Art in Kucha Buddhism: The Case Study of the Kucha Grottos

苗利輝(MIAO Lihui)
新疆龜茲研究所(Kucha Academy of Xinjiang

摘要(Abstract):佛教淨土藝術,是表現佛教中淨土信仰的藝術類型。佛教淨土中的淨土與穢土相對而言,是指有佛菩薩存在的莊嚴清淨國土。龜茲佛教中的淨土依其表現內容和反映的思想可分為彌勒淨土、西方淨土、東方淨土和華嚴淨土。

龜茲地區淨土思想的傳入很早,主要為彌勒上生淨土信仰,藝術風格為龜茲風格。漢傳佛教淨土思想傳入龜茲則與唐代經營這裡有關,系安西大都護府建立後,漢族軍士和民眾的移居而傳入的,內容主要為西方淨土、東方淨土和華嚴淨土,其藝術風格與同時期的中原漢地藝術保持一致。這種淨土藝術也對同時期的龜茲本地佛教藝術產生了影響。

西元10 世紀以後,在龜茲地區建立了統治的回鶻民族皈依了佛教,淨土信仰也是其佛教信仰的重要部分,主要是華嚴淨土信仰,也有彌勒下生信仰等其他淨土信仰,其藝術風格,除有中原藝術的影響外,本民族風格的淨土藝術得以確立。

The Pure Land Art is an artistic genre that depicts the Buddhist belief about the Pure Land. In Buddhism, Pure Land is contrasted with the Defiled Land (Ch. huitu 穢土) and refers to the pure and adorned land on which buddhas and bodhisattvas dwell. In Kucha Buddhism, we could distinguish four types of Pure Lands based on their content and implied doctrines: the Maitreyan Pure Land, the Western Pure Land, the Eastern Pure Land and the Huayan Pure Land. The Pure Land belief took root in Kucha from very early on and was mainly associated with the theme of the Ascension of Maitreya. The artistic depiction shows strong indigenous features. Later, the Chinese Pure Land beliefs also spread to Kucha, thanks to the influence of the Tang Empire (618–907) in Kucha as well as the immigration of Han soldiers and people after the establishment of the Anxi Protectorate 安西大都護府. The beliefs transmitted during this time mainly bore on the Western Pure Land, the Eastern Pure Land and the Huayan Pure Land. Their artistic depictions are aligned with the Chinese depictions. The introduction of the Pure Land art also exerted influences on the Buddhist arts in Kucha in general. After the 10th century, the Uyghur people controlled Kucha and converted to Buddhism. In this period, the Pure Land belief remained an integral part of Uyghur Buddhism, with the Huayan Pure Land being the most influential, though other Pure Land beliefs, such as Maitreya’s Ascension, were also present. Their artistic depictions retain the Chinese influence but also reflect the indigenous artistic tradition.

關鍵詞Keywords):龜茲(Kucha)、淨土藝術(Pureland art)、龜茲石窟(Kucha stone grottoes)

 

關於作者:甘肅武威人。1997年獲西北大學歷史學學士學位。2010年獲北京大學歷史地理學碩士學位。2014年–2015年,在中央美術學院人文學院作訪問學者,師從羅世平。2015年考取中國人民大學國學院博士,導師李肖。1997年至今,一直在新疆龜茲研究院工作,研究方向為西域佛教考古、藝術及思想。現為該院研究員。先後多次參加新疆地區古遺址的考古發掘工作,主持或參加多項科研課題,部分為國家級課題。先後在《西域研究》、《敦煌研究》和《敦煌學輯刊》等學術刊物上發表學術論文三十餘篇。參與編著專著5部。

 

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