《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第一卷‧第二期, 苗利辉

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第一卷‧第二期(2018):79–104; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201810_1(2).0003
(本文属于专刊《佛教艺术》

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龟兹佛教净土艺术——以龟兹石窟为中心The Pure Land Art in Kucha Buddhism: The Case Study of the Kucha Grottos

 

苗利辉(MIAO Lihui)
新疆龟兹研究所
Kucha Academy of Xinjiang

摘要(Abstract):佛教净土艺术,是表现佛教中净土信仰的艺术类型。佛教净土中的净土与秽土相对而言,是指有佛菩萨存在的庄严清净国土。龟兹佛教中的净土依其表现内容和反映的思想可分为弥勒净土、西方净土、东方净土和华严净土。

龟兹地区净土思想的传入很早,主要为弥勒上生净土信仰,艺术风格为龟兹风格。汉传佛教净土思想传入龟兹则与唐代经营这里有关,系安西大都护府建立后,汉族军士和民众的移居而传入的,内容主要为西方净土、东方净土和华严净土,其艺术风格与同时期的中原汉地艺术保持一致。这种净土艺术也对同时期的龟兹本地佛教艺术产生了影响。

西元10 世纪以后,在龟兹地区建立了统治的回鹘民族皈依了佛教,净土信仰也是其佛教信仰的重要部分,主要是华严净土信仰,也有弥勒下生信仰等其他净土信仰,其艺术风格,除有中原艺术的影响外,本民族风格的净土艺术得以确立。

The Pure Land Art is an artistic genre that depicts the Buddhist belief about the Pure Land. In Buddhism, Pure Land is contrasted with the Defiled Land (Ch. huitu 穢土) and refers to the pure and adorned land on which buddhas and bodhisattvas dwell. In Kucha Buddhism, we could distinguish four types of Pure Lands based on their content and implied doctrines: the Maitreyan Pure Land, the Western Pure Land, the Eastern Pure Land and the Huayan Pure Land. The Pure Land belief took root in Kucha from very early on and was mainly associated with the theme of the Ascension of Maitreya. The artistic depiction shows strong indigenous features. Later, the Chinese Pure Land beliefs also spread to Kucha, thanks to the influence of the Tang Empire (618–907) in Kucha as well as the immigration of Han soldiers and people after the establishment of the Anxi Protectorate 安西大都護府. The beliefs transmitted during this time mainly bore on the Western Pure Land, the Eastern Pure Land and the Huayan Pure Land. Their artistic depictions are aligned with the Chinese depictions. The introduction of the Pure Land art also exerted influences on the Buddhist arts in Kucha in general. After the 10th century, the Uyghur people controlled Kucha and converted to Buddhism. In this period, the Pure Land belief remained an integral part of Uyghur Buddhism, with the Huayan Pure Land being the most influential, though other Pure Land beliefs, such as Maitreya’s Ascension, were also present. Their artistic depictions retain the Chinese influence but also reflect the indigenous artistic tradition.

关键词(Keywords):龟兹(Kucha)、净土艺术(Pureland art)、龟兹石窟(Kucha stone grottoes)

 

关于作者:甘肃武威人。 1997年获西北大学历史学学士学位。 2010年获北京大学历史地理学硕士学位。 2014年–2015年,在中央美术学院人文学院作访问学者,师从罗世平。 2015年考取中国人民大学国学院博士,导师李肖。 1997年至今,一直在新疆龟兹研究院工作,研究方向为西域佛教考古、艺术及思想。现为该院研究员。先后多次参加新疆地区古遗址的考古发掘工作,主持或参加多项科研课题,部分为国家级课题。先后在《西域研究》、《敦煌研究》和《敦煌学辑刊》等学术刊物上发表学术论文三十余篇。参与编著专著5部。

 

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