《華林國際佛學學刊》:電子期刊 第二卷‧第一期, 王雪梅

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第二卷‧第一期(2019):120–150; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201904_2(1).0005
(本文屬於專刊《法顯研究》

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中古西行求法僧與彌勒信仰的傳播——以法顯、玄奘為中心的考察Medieval Chinese Monks Travelling to the West in Pursuit of the Dharma and Their Connections to the Spread of Maitreya Belief: An Investigation Based on Faxian and Xuanzang

王雪梅(WANG Xuemei)
西北大學(Northwest University)

摘要(Abstract):東晉的法顯、唐初的玄奘是中古時代西行求法僧的傑出代表。二者的西行記錄中都有關於彌勒信仰的豐富內容,他們將親身經歷的見聞攜帶回母國,不僅給當時中土的信仰帶回新事物、注入新活力,甚至修訂改造往昔的彌勒信仰認知,產生對中土彌勒信仰的影響超越經典傳譯的決定作用。法顯從印度帶回彌勒信仰的新內容,如龍華圖、龍華信仰、彌勒初會、佛钵信仰等,極大的促進並影響了南北朝時代興盛流行的龍華信仰(下生信仰);玄奘旅印的彌勒信仰見聞及其信仰實踐帶給中土彌勒信仰新內容,如彌勒懺儀、彌勒內眾等行儀與觀念,直接促成了唐代上生兜率信仰的興盛,影響了有唐一代彌勒懺儀甚至彌陀淨土的懺儀,強化了兜率“內眾”的殊勝,確立了中土“兜率內院”的觀念,“兜率內院”、“內院”幾乎成為了唐以後中土彌勒信仰的代名詞。

Faxian 法顯 (337–422) and Xuanzang 玄奘 (602?–664) are outstanding representative monks of Buddhist pilgrimages to Ancient India in the Eastern Jin and early Tang Dynasties. They both wrote rich records about belief in Maitreya in their travelogues. Their personal experiences of pilgrimage not only brought new information and a fresh vitality to beliefs in inland China, but also impacted the Maitreya belief in the years before their pilgrimage. This impact is much more defining than the effort of scripture translations. Faxian brought back new elements related to belief in Maitreya from Ancient India, such as the nāga-puspa picture (龍華圖), the nāga-puspa belief (龍華信仰), the first turning wheel of Maitreya Buddha (彌勒初會), the belief in Buddha’s bowl (佛钵信仰) and so on. These elements greatly promoted and influenced the nāga-puspa belief (Maitreya belief下生信仰), which was the prevailing faith in the Southern and Northern Dynasties. Xuanzang also brought back his own experiences and religious practice from Ancient India, which introduced new contents of Maitreya belief in inland China. One example comes from the rules for confession and forgiveness of Maitreya (彌勒懺儀), and also Maitreya’s monks (彌勒內眾). These practices and their concepts directly contributed to the prosperity of Maitreya belief (上生兜率信仰), and meanwhile affected the rules for confession and forgiveness of Maitreya and Amitabh’s Pure Land (彌陀淨土) during the Tang dynasty. Moreover, it strengthened the exceptionality of Tushita’s monks and established the concept of China Tushita courtyard (中土‘兜率內院’). Since then, Tuṣita Courtyard and Courtyard became almost synonymous with Chinese Maitreya beliefs.

關鍵詞Keywords):中古(Medieval Period),彌勒信仰(Maitreya Belief),法顯(Faxian),玄奘(Xuanzang),“兜率內院”(Tushita courtyard)

 

關於作者:王雪梅,歷史學博士,西北大學哲學學院、玄奘研究院教授,四川省第十三批有突出貢獻的優秀專家、陝西省千人計劃青年項目專家。主要從事佛教史及相關宗教文化研究,發表學術論文20余篇,出版專著《彌勒信仰研究》及合著《陝西神德寺塔出土文獻》。主持並完成多個國家級課題,目前在研國家社科基金一般項目“清代南部縣宗教與鄉土社會研究”(18BZS076)。

 

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