《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第二卷‧第一期, 王雪梅

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第二卷‧第一期(2019):120–150; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201904_2(1).0005
(本文属于专刊《法显研究》

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中古西行求法僧与弥勒信仰的传播——以法显、玄奘为中心的考察Medieval Chinese Monks Travelling to the West in Pursuit of the Dharma and Their Connections to the Spread of Maitreya Belief: An Investigation Based on Faxian and Xuanzang

王雪梅(WANG Xuemei)
西北大学(Northwest University)

摘要(Abstract):东晋的法显、唐初的玄奘是中古时代西行求法僧的杰出代表。二者的西行记录中都有关于弥勒信仰的丰富内容,他们将亲身经历的见闻携带回母国,不仅给当时中土的信仰带回新事物、注入新活力,甚至修订改造往昔的弥勒信仰认知,产生对中土弥勒信仰的影响超越经典传译的决定作用。法显从印度带回弥勒信仰的新内容,如龙华图、龙华信仰、弥勒初会、佛钵信仰等,极大的促进并影响了南北朝时代兴盛流行的龙华信仰(下生信仰);玄奘旅印的弥勒信仰见闻及其信仰实践带给中土弥勒信仰新内容,如弥勒忏仪、弥勒内众等行仪与观念,直接促成了唐代上生兜率信仰的兴盛,影响了有唐一代弥勒忏仪甚至弥陀净土的忏仪,强化了兜率“内众”的殊胜,确立了中土“兜率内院”的观念,“兜率内院”、“内院”几乎成为了唐以后中土弥勒信仰的代名词。

Faxian 法顯 (337–422) and Xuanzang 玄奘 (602?–664) are outstanding representative monks of Buddhist pilgrimages to Ancient India in the Eastern Jin and early Tang Dynasties. They both wrote rich records about belief in Maitreya in their travelogues. Their personal experiences of pilgrimage not only brought new information and a fresh vitality to beliefs in inland China, but also impacted the Maitreya belief in the years before their pilgrimage. This impact is much more defining than the effort of scripture translations. Faxian brought back new elements related to belief in Maitreya from Ancient India, such as the nāga-puspa picture (龍華圖), the nāga-puspa belief (龍華信仰), the first turning wheel of Maitreya Buddha (彌勒初會), the belief in Buddha’s bowl (佛钵信仰) and so on. These elements greatly promoted and influenced the nāga-puspa belief (Maitreya belief下生信仰), which was the prevailing faith in the Southern and Northern Dynasties. Xuanzang also brought back his own experiences and religious practice from Ancient India, which introduced new contents of Maitreya belief in inland China. One example comes from the rules for confession and forgiveness of Maitreya (彌勒懺儀), and also Maitreya’s monks (彌勒內眾). These practices and their concepts directly contributed to the prosperity of Maitreya belief (上生兜率信仰), and meanwhile affected the rules for confession and forgiveness of Maitreya and Amitabh’s Pure Land (彌陀淨土) during the Tang dynasty. Moreover, it strengthened the exceptionality of Tushita’s monks and established the concept of China Tushita courtyard (中土‘兜率內院’). Since then, Tuṣita Courtyard and Courtyard became almost synonymous with Chinese Maitreya beliefs.

关键词(Keywords):中古(Medieval Period),弥勒信仰(Maitreya Belief),法显(Faxian),玄奘(Xuanzang),“兜率内院”(Tushita courtyard)

 

关于作者:王雪梅,历史学博士,西北大学哲学学院、玄奘研究院教授,四川省第十三批有突出贡献的优秀专家、陕西省千人计划青年项目专家。主要从事佛教史及相关宗教文化研究,发表学术论文20余篇,出版专著《弥勒信仰研究》及合着《陕西神德寺塔出土文献》。主持并完成多个国家级课题,目前在研国家社科基金一般项目“清代南部县宗教与乡土社会研究”(18BZS076)。

 

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