《華林國際佛學學刊》:電子期刊 第二卷‧第一期, 紀贇

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第二卷‧第一期(2019):46–82; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201904_2(1).0003
(本文屬於專刊《法顯研究》

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法顯:東亞他域游方朝聖僧典範的確立?(Faxian and the Establishment of the Pilgrimage Tradition of Qiufa [Dharma-searching]

紀贇(JI Yun)
新加坡佛學院(Buddhist Academy of Singapore)

摘要(Abstract):本文首先討論世界宗教背景之中各派宗教信徒在前往聖地朝聖之時的模式,及其淨化心靈、錘煉意志、求取、瞻仰聖地的宗教訴求。以此來考察漢傳佛教朝聖習俗的傳入、興起淵源以及發展過程。法顯作為漢傳佛教中第一位留下詳細傳記記載的印度朝聖者,其對後世所具有的典範性意義顯而易見。尤其是他前往印度的主要目的值得關注,即為了求取律藏典籍,而非為其自身救度等抽象宗教情懷的滿足。在法顯之後,玄奘、義淨以及在義淨記錄的《大唐西域求法高僧傳》中的諸多僧人,再到日僧圓仁的《入唐求法巡禮行記》之中所載,無論真實情況如何,“求法”都成為了至少在口頭上的主要訴求,這就將之與其他宗教乃至藏傳佛教的很多朝聖活動區別了開來,這些宗教朝聖主流都不是為了“求法”。那麼,這是否說明漢傳佛教以及深受其影響的東亞其他佛教傳統(朝鮮、日本佛教)的朝聖主流即為求法而非其他呢?是否存在精英佛教與世俗佛教朝聖模式的差別?本文將探討這種以法顯游記所記載的朝聖模式所產生的影響及其反映的若干宗教特點。

The present article starts by evoking various forms of pilgrimage in major world religions and the religious needs that could be fulfilled through pilgrimage, including purification of the soul, communion with the divine and worship of sacred lands. Under this general context, the article delves into pilgrimage in Chinese Buddhism regarding its spread into China, and its rise and historical development. Faxian, as the first India-bound Chinese Buddhist who wrote a travelogue, exerted clear influences on later pilgrims as an exemplary pilgrim. In particular, we should pay attention to Faxian’s intention of pilgrimage, which bears on the search of canonical vinaya texts rather than the fulfilment of abstract religious needs such as salvation. After Faxian, numerous pilgrims have undertaken pilgrimages to the Western Regions, including Xuanzang, Yijing and monks recorded in Da Tang Xiyu qiufa gaoseng zhuan 大唐西域求法高僧傳 [The Great Tang Biographies of Eminent Monks who Sought the Dharma in the Western Regions] by Yijing 義淨 (635–713) and Nittō guhō junrei kōki 入唐求法巡禮行記 [The Record of a Pilgrim- age to the Tang in Search of the Buddhist Law] by the Japanese monk Ennin 圓仁 (793/794–864). Regardless of the historical reality, we could at least observe, on the textual level, that qiufa (the search of Dharma) represents the main objective for Chinese pilgrims. This characteristic sets Chinese Buddhist pilgrimage apart from other religions and even from Tibetan Buddhism, for which qiufa is never a common goal. Does this imply that qiufa was the mainstream form of pilgrimage in Chinese Buddhism and in other Buddhist traditions in East Asia influenced by Chinese Buddhism (e.g. Korean and Japanese Buddhism)? Could there be a difference between an elite and a non-elite form of pilgrimage? The present article will investigate the influence of the qiufa tradition that was inspired by Faxian’s travelogue; and through this discussion, reveal some traits about Chinese Buddhism in general.

 

關鍵詞Keywords):法顯(Faxian)、朝聖(pilgrimage)、求法(qiufa)、典範(paragon)、精英佛教(elite Buddhism)、世俗佛教(secular Buddhism)

 

關於作者:紀贇,文學博士,新加坡佛學院(Buddhist College of Singapore)副教授,兼任教務主任、圖書館館長。除教學外,主要從事佛教文獻、佛教史等相關研究。曾出版專著《慧皎高僧傳研究》(2009,上海古籍)、《佛教經典觀》(2011,宗教文化);譯著《漢文佛教文獻研究》(獨譯,2017,廣西師大)、《佛教文獻學十講》(合譯, 2019,中西書局)等;英譯漢學術論文二十餘篇;學術論文、會議論文與書評二十餘篇。

 

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