《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第二卷‧第一期, 纪赟

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第二卷‧第一期(2019):46–82; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201904_2(1).0003
(本文属于专刊《法显研究》

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法显:东亚他域游方朝圣僧典范的确立?(Faxian and the Establishment of the Pilgrimage Tradition of Qiufa [Dharma-searching])

纪赟(JI Yun)
新加坡佛学院(Buddhist Academy of Singapore)

摘要(Abstract):本文首先讨论世界宗教背景之中各派宗教信徒在前往圣地朝圣之时的模式,及其净化心灵、锤炼意志、求取、瞻仰圣地的宗教诉求。以此来考察汉传佛教朝圣习俗的传入、兴起渊源以及发展过程。法显作为汉传佛教中第一位留下详细传记记载的印度朝圣者,其对后世所具有的典范性意义显而易见。尤其是他前往印度的主要目的值得关注,即为了求取律藏典籍,而非为其自身救度等抽象宗教情怀的满足。在法显之后,玄奘、义净以及在义净记录的《大唐西域求法高僧传》中的诸多僧人,再到日僧圆仁的《入唐求法巡礼行记》之中所载,无论真实情况如何,“求法”都成为了至少在口头上的主要诉求,这就将之与其他宗教乃至藏传佛教的很多朝圣活动区别了开来,这些宗教朝圣主流都不是为了“求法”。那么,这是否说明汉传佛教以及深受其影响的东亚其他佛教传统(朝鲜、日本佛教)的朝圣主流即为求法而非其他呢?是否存在精英佛教与世俗佛教朝圣模式的差别?本文将探讨这种以法显游记所记载的朝圣模式所产生的影响及其反映的若干宗教特点。

The present article starts by evoking various forms of pilgrimage in major world religions and the religious needs that could be fulfilled through pilgrimage, including purification of the soul, communion with the divine and worship of sacred lands. Under this general context, the article delves into pilgrimage in Chinese Buddhism regarding its spread into China, and its rise and historical development. Faxian, as the first India-bound Chinese Buddhist who wrote a travelogue, exerted clear influences on later pilgrims as an exemplary pilgrim. In particular, we should pay attention to Faxian’s intention of pilgrimage, which bears on the search of canonical vinaya texts rather than the fulfilment of abstract religious needs such as salvation. After Faxian, numerous pilgrims have undertaken pilgrimages to the Western Regions, including Xuanzang, Yijing and monks recorded in Da Tang Xiyu qiufa gaoseng zhuan 大唐西域求法高僧傳 [The Great Tang Biographies of Eminent Monks who Sought the Dharma in the Western Regions] by Yijing 義淨 (635–713) and Nittō guhō junrei kōki 入唐求法巡禮行記 [The Record of a Pilgrim- age to the Tang in Search of the Buddhist Law] by the Japanese monk Ennin 圓仁 (793/794–864). Regardless of the historical reality, we could at least observe, on the textual level, that qiufa (the search of Dharma) represents the main objective for Chinese pilgrims. This characteristic sets Chinese Buddhist pilgrimage apart from other religions and even from Tibetan Buddhism, for which qiufa is never a common goal. Does this imply that qiufa was the mainstream form of pilgrimage in Chinese Buddhism and in other Buddhist traditions in East Asia influenced by Chinese Buddhism (e.g. Korean and Japanese Buddhism)? Could there be a difference between an elite and a non-elite form of pilgrimage? The present article will investigate the influence of the qiufa tradition that was inspired by Faxian’s travelogue; and through this discussion, reveal some traits about Chinese Buddhism in general.

关键词(Keywords):法显(Faxian)、朝圣(pilgrimage)、求法(qiufa)、典范(paragon)、精英佛教(elite Buddhism)、世俗佛教(secular Buddhism)

 

关于作者:纪赟,文学博士,新加坡佛学院(Buddhist College of Singapore)副教授,兼任教务主任、图书馆馆长。除教学外,主要从事佛教文献、佛教史等相关研究。曾出版专著《慧皎高僧传研究》(2009,上海古籍)、《佛教经典观》(2011,宗教文化);译著《汉文佛教文献研究》(独译,2017,广西师大)、《佛教文献学十讲》(合译, 2019,中西书局)等;英译汉学术论文二十余篇;学术论文、会议论文与书评二十余篇。

 

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