《華林國際佛學學刊》:電子期刊 第二卷‧第一期, 劉苑如

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第二卷‧第一期(2019):83–119; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201904_2(1).0004
(本文屬於專刊《法顯研究》

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法顯與劉裕集團:東晉十六國佛教與社會網絡Faxian and Liu Yu’s Inner Circle: Interactions between Society and Buddhism during the Eastern Jin Dynasty

劉苑如(LIU Yuan-ju)
台灣中央研究院(Academia Sinica)

摘要(Abstract):法顯(338?–423?)法師有感於當時所傳的律藏殘闕,於東晉隆安(399)離開長安,前往天竺求法,歷經十三年回到青州時,正值劉裕(363–422)在晉朝末期收復北方的青、兗、司三州,積極造宋稱帝的時期。法顯上岸後即受到劉裕之弟劉(兗)青州(道憐,368–422)的邀請,在京口一冬一夏,建立了龍華寺;稍後在義熙十二年至十四年間,由劉氏集團中的孟顗、褚叔度(378–424)為檀越,於建業道場寺與佛馱跋陀羅(Buddhabhadra,359–429)共同翻譯經、律;最後法顯赴荊州辛寺終老。在法顯回國後的經歷中,隱隱可見國家與佛教兩種權力的交鋒,本文的目的有三:第一,釐析劉裕集團的佛國建構;第二,重溯晉宋之際佛教內部的交際網絡與佛學背景;第三,探討其在中國佛教發展史的意義。

This article discusses the interaction between Faxian 法顯 (338?–423?) and Liu Yu 劉裕 (363–422) and his circles, especially the relations within the saṃgha in Qing-Xu 青許and Jingzhou 荊州, from the point of geo-relationship and of dharma-associated practices, to remodel the social networks and Buddhist background of the Eastern Jin and the Sixteen Kingdoms, to discuss the protection of Buddhism by Liu Yu’s circles, and to highlight the contribution of Faxian to it. There are some important hints as to that. First, Faxian came back to Qingzhou 青州, which coincided with the time when Liu Yu had reclaimed the prefectures of Qing 青, Yan 兗 and Si 司, and planned to establish the kingdom of Song. As soon as Faxian reached land, he was invited by Liu Yu’s younger brother, Liu Daolian 劉道憐 (368–422) to build a monastery called Longhua 龍華寺 in Pengcheng 彭城. Second, he translated sutras and vinaya texts together with Buddhabhadra (359–429) at Daochang Monastery 道場寺 in Jiankang 建康, during the twelfth and fourteenth year of the Yixi 義熙 period, with the support of the benefactors from Liu Yu’s clique Meng Yi 孟顗 (?–450) and Chu Shudu 褚叔度 (378–424). Lastly, he went to Xing Monastery 辛寺 in Jingzhou for his last days, this was also a consequence of Liu Yu’s power. During his lifetime rich in travel, with the spread of Buddhism to the east, Faxian was connected to several important places of the Buddhist sangha, which is also closely related to the choice and acceptance of the Buddhist doctrine in China, and which constructed a complicated circle of Buddhist believers.

關鍵詞Keywords):法顯(Faxian)、劉裕(Liu Yu)、佛馱跋陀羅(Buddhabhadra)、社會網絡(social networks)

 

關於作者:劉苑如,中央研究院中國文哲所研究員,主要致力於中國敘事文學、魏晉南北朝文化研究、宗教傳記與遊記研究。曾獲美國傅爾布萊特資深學人資助與國科會人文學研究中心專書出版補助,並為美國哈佛燕京學社與日本京都大學人文學研究所、美國加州柏克萊大學中國文化中心等機構之訪問學人。有專書《身體、性別、階級——六朝志怪的常異論述與小說美學》(中研院文哲所,2002)與《朝向生活世界的文學詮釋──六朝宗教敘述的身體實踐與空間書寫》(新文豐,2010)等,另主編、翻譯及其他著作方式之專書(論文集)十餘種,學術論文與專書章節數十種。

 

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