《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第二卷‧第一期, 刘苑如

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第二卷‧第一期(2019):83–119; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201904_2(1).0004
(本文属于专刊《法显研究》

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法显与刘裕集团:东晋十六国佛教与社会网络Faxian and Liu Yu’s Inner Circle: Interactions between Society and Buddhism during the Eastern Jin Dynasty

刘苑如(LIU Yuan-ju)
台湾中央研究院(Academia Sinica)

摘要(Abstract):法显(338?–423?)法师有感于当时所传的律藏残阙,于东晋隆安(399)离开长安,前往天竺求法,历经十三年回到青州时,正值刘裕(363 –422)在晋朝末期收复北方的青、兖、司三州,积极造宋称帝的时期。法显上岸后即受到刘裕之弟刘(兖)青州(道怜,368–422)的邀请,在京口一冬一夏,建立了龙华寺;稍后在义熙十二年至十四年间,由刘氏集团中的孟顗、褚叔度(378–424)为檀越,于建业道场寺与佛驮跋陀罗(Buddhabhadra,359–429)共同翻译经、律;最后法显赴荆州辛寺终老。在法显回国后的经历中,隐隐可见国家与佛教两种权力的交锋,本文的目的有三:第一,厘析刘裕集团的佛国建构;第二,重溯晋宋之际佛教内部的交际网络与佛学背景;第三,探讨其在中国佛教发展史的意义。

This article discusses the interaction between Faxian 法顯 (338?–423?) and Liu Yu 劉裕 (363–422) and his circles, especially the relations within the saṃgha in Qing-Xu 青許and Jingzhou 荊州, from the point of geo-relationship and of dharma-associated practices, to remodel the social networks and Buddhist background of the Eastern Jin and the Sixteen Kingdoms, to discuss the protection of Buddhism by Liu Yu’s circles, and to highlight the contribution of Faxian to it. There are some important hints as to that. First, Faxian came back to Qingzhou 青州, which coincided with the time when Liu Yu had reclaimed the prefectures of Qing 青, Yan 兗 and Si 司, and planned to establish the kingdom of Song. As soon as Faxian reached land, he was invited by Liu Yu’s younger brother, Liu Daolian 劉道憐 (368–422) to build a monastery called Longhua 龍華寺 in Pengcheng 彭城. Second, he translated sutras and vinaya texts together with Buddhabhadra (359–429) at Daochang Monastery 道場寺 in Jiankang 建康, during the twelfth and fourteenth year of the Yixi 義熙 period, with the support of the benefactors from Liu Yu’s clique Meng Yi 孟顗 (?–450) and Chu Shudu 褚叔度 (378–424). Lastly, he went to Xing Monastery 辛寺 in Jingzhou for his last days, this was also a consequence of Liu Yu’s power. During his lifetime rich in travel, with the spread of Buddhism to the east, Faxian was connected to several important places of the Buddhist sangha, which is also closely related to the choice and acceptance of the Buddhist doctrine in China, and which constructed a complicated circle of Buddhist believers.

关键词Keywords):法显(Faxian)、刘裕(Liu Yu)、佛驮跋陀罗(Buddhabhadra)、社会网络(social networks)

 

关于作者:刘苑如,中央研究院中国文哲所研究员,主要致力于中国叙事文学、魏晋南北朝文化研究、宗教传记与游记研究。曾获美国傅尔布莱特资深学人资助与国科会人文学研究中心专书出版补助,并为美国哈佛燕京学社与日本京都大学人文学研究所、美国加州柏克莱大学中国文化中心等机构之访问学人。有专书《身体、性别、阶级——六朝志怪的常异论述与小说美学》(中研院文哲所,2002)与《朝向生活世界的文学诠释──六朝宗教叙述的身体实践与空间书写》(新文丰,2010)等,另主编、翻译及其他著作方式之专书(论文集)十余种,学术论文与专书章节数十种。

 

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