《華林國際佛學學刊》:電子期刊 第二卷‧第二期, 紀贇

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第二卷‧第二期(2019):117–158; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201910_2(2).0003

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《六祖壇經》的文獻分層及相關問題分析(The Liuzu Tanjing: Analysis of Its Multi-Layered Textual History and Some Derivative Issues)

紀贇(JI Yun)
新加坡佛學院(Buddhist Academy of Singapore)

摘要(Abstract):《六祖壇經》至今已發現二十餘個版本,就文獻群而言,可大致劃分為敦煌、宋與元三個版本群。其文獻依次累積增加,通過文獻層發展以及其史源學檢索,即可發現若干問題。如通過呈心偈與敦煌文獻以及其他輔助材料的比對,可以對惠能與神秀是否真實見過面提出新的疑問。並以此來勾勒民間敘事之中,永遠有著對真實歷史事件進行戲劇化的衝動;而對《壇經》與燈錄材料的對比,則同樣可以讓我們得以重新定位《壇經》的文體特徵,即其同時具備語錄、燈錄、聖徒傳記等多重身份,但卻與正統的“佛經”概念相隔懸遠,這就對我們應如何來看待並利用《壇經》之中的材料有所幫助。並且,通過其入藏時間與形式、歷史上的流通與現實中僧團儀式之中運用的情況分析來看,至少在明代之前,《壇經》都遠非過去學界所認為的那樣重要,但是明代入藏則完全改變了這部文獻的命運,這同樣可對文獻流傳史中入藏的作用提供新的例證。

More than twenty recensions have been discovered for the Liuzu tanjing 六祖壇經 (Platform Sūtra). If we were to divide them into groups, we could divide three groups evolving around three editions—the Dunhuang, the Song and the Yuan edition. The number of manuscripts for each edition increases according to the chronology of the three editions. By investigating this multi-layered textual history and their textual sources, we could shed light on several issues. First, by comparing the ‘self-revelation verses’ (chengxin ji 呈心偈) in the Liuzu tanjing with those in Dunhuang manuscripts and other relevant materials, we could put into question the historical veracity of the encounter between Huineng 惠能 (638–713) and Shenxiu 神秀 (606–706). By doing so, we could come to see it as a folk narrative with its tendency to dramatize historical events. In addition, by comparing the Liuzu tanjing with the lineage record (chuandeng lu 傳燈錄), we could discern the particularities of the Liuzu tanjing in terms of its genre. That is, the Liuzu tanjing has multiple functions as a collection of sayings, a lineage record and a hagiography, etc., which makes Liuzu tanjing a clearly distinct genre in regard to a traditional sūtra. By being clear about this, we could better understand and utilize the information in the Liuzu tanjing. Moreover, by analyzing the time and the way by which the Liuzu tanjing was canonized, and its circulation in history, as well as how it was utilized by the saṃgha, we could see that before the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), the Liuzu tanjing was not as influential as the scholars tend to believe; and that its fate was only altered when it was canonized in the Ming Dynasty. The Liuzu tanjing is a case-in-point demonstrating the importance of canonization for the circulation of a text.

關鍵詞(Keywords):六祖壇經(Platform Sūtra)、文獻學(bibliography)、文本性質(textual nature)、偽經(apocrypha)、大藏經(Buddhist canon)

 

關於作者:文學博士,新加坡佛學院(Buddhist College of Singapore)副教授,兼任教務主任、圖書館館長。除教學外,主要從事佛教文獻、佛教史等相關研究。曾出版專著《慧皎高僧傳研究》 (2009,上海古籍)、《佛教經典觀》(2011,宗教文化);譯著《漢文佛教文獻研究》(獨譯,2017,廣西師大)、《佛教文獻學十講》(合譯, 2019,中西書局)等;英譯漢學術論文二十餘篇;學術論文、會議論文與書評二十餘篇。

 

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