《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第二卷‧第二期, 纪赟

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第二卷‧第二期(2019):117–158; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201910_2(2).0003

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《六祖坛经》的文献分层及相关问题分析The Liuzu Tanjing: Analysis of Its Multi-Layered Textual History and Some Derivative Issues

纪赟(JI Yun)
新加坡佛学院(Buddhist Academy of Singapore)

摘要(Abstract):《六祖坛经》至今已发现二十余个版本,就文献群而言,可大致划分为敦煌、宋与元三个版本群。其文献依次累积增加,通过文献层发展以及其史源学检索,即可发现若干问题。如通过呈心偈与敦煌文献以及其他辅助材料的比对,可以对惠能与神秀是否真实见过面提出新的疑问。并以此来勾勒民间叙事之中,永远有着对真实历史事件进行戏剧化的冲动;而对《坛经》与灯录材料的对比,则同样可以让我们得以重新定位《坛经》的文体特征,即其同时具备语录、灯录、圣徒传记等多重身份,但却与正统的“佛经”概念相隔悬远,这就对我们应如何来看待并利用《坛经》之中的材料有所帮助。并且,通过其入藏时间与形式、历史上的流通与现实中僧团仪式之中运用的情况分析来看,至少在明代之前,《坛经》都远非过去学界所认为的那样重要,但是明代入藏则完全改变了这部文献的命运,这同样可对文献流传史中入藏的作用提供新的例证。

More than twenty recensions have been discovered for the Liuzu tanjing 六祖壇經 (Platform Sūtra). If we were to divide them into groups, we could divide three groups evolving around three editions—the Dunhuang, the Song and the Yuan edition. The number of manuscripts for each edition increases according to the chronology of the three editions. By investigating this multi-layered textual history and their textual sources, we could shed light on several issues. First, by comparing the ‘self-revelation verses’ (chengxin ji 呈心偈) in the Liuzu tanjing with those in Dunhuang manuscripts and other relevant materials, we could put into question the historical veracity of the encounter between Huineng 惠能 (638–713) and Shenxiu 神秀 (606–706). By doing so, we could come to see it as a folk narrative with its tendency to dramatize historical events. In addition, by comparing the Liuzu tanjing with the lineage record (chuandeng lu 傳燈錄), we could discern the particularities of the Liuzu tanjing in terms of its genre. That is, the Liuzu tanjing has multiple functions as a collection of sayings, a lineage record and a hagiography, etc., which makes Liuzu tanjing a clearly distinct genre in regard to a traditional sūtra. By being clear about this, we could better understand and utilize the information in the Liuzu tanjing. Moreover, by analyzing the time and the way by which the Liuzu tanjing was canonized, and its circulation in history, as well as how it was utilized by the saṃgha, we could see that before the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), the Liuzu tanjing was not as influential as the scholars tend to believe; and that its fate was only altered when it was canonized in the Ming Dynasty. The Liuzu tanjing is a case-in-point demonstrating the importance of canonization for the circulation of a text.

关键词(Keywords):六祖坛经(Platform Sūtra)、文献学(bibliography)、文本性质(textual nature)、伪经(apocrypha)、大藏经(Buddhist canon)

 

关于作者:文学博士,新加坡佛学院(Buddhist College of Singapore)副教授,兼任教务主任、图书馆馆长。除教学外,主要从事佛教文献、佛教史等相关研究。曾出版专著《慧皎高僧传研究》 (2009,上海古籍)、《佛教经典观》(2011,宗教文化);译著《汉文佛教文献研究》(独译,2017,广西师大)、《佛教文献学十讲》(合译, 2019,中西书局)等;英译汉学术论文二十余篇;学术论文、会议论文与书评二十余篇。

 

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