《華林國際佛學學刊》:電子期刊 第二卷‧第二期, 張軼男、陳金華

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第二卷‧第二期(2019):208–243; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201910_2(2).0006

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論禪佛水月與“理一分殊”(On the Chan Buddhist Metaphor of Shuiyue 水月[“Water-Moon”] and Zhu Xi’s Theory of Liyi Fenshu 理一分殊 [One Principle in Multiple Manifestations])

張軼男(ZHANG Yi’nan)、陳金華(CHEN Jinhua)
(北華大學Beihua University)、(英屬哥倫比亞大學 [UBC])

摘要(Abstract):近來有學者對佛教與朱熹理一分殊的影響關係提出異議,使這個已為學界廣泛接受的案頭習見有了重新討論的必要。通過對《朱子語類》中水月三喻的再解讀,可以確認傳統認識對於兩者關係的事實判斷沒有問題,問題在於止於兩者“有”關係,而對兩者關係究竟“如何”又“為何”如此,並無深談。現代思考應該做的,是將傳統理論放在現代的坐標系中,對其事實判斷予以價值重估,進而探索傳統未到之處。為此,需解決華嚴水月的禪化與詩化、理一分殊的禪學因數以及理一分殊的華嚴、禪宗影響說等幾個問題。要之,禪佛水月以其詩學象徵,承載著華嚴圓融辯證的禪理,融入朱熹理一分殊的思辨哲學中;水月之喻從宗教意象、到詩學意象、到哲學意象的嬗變,彌補了舊儒學思辨哲學與形象思維的先天不足,使“盛極而衰”的禪學借理學之體得以新生,對中國文化產生了存在而不可見的影響,此或可為佛教中國化的另一種解讀。從階段性歷史的角度看,援佛入儒推動了中國哲學的昇華,這一推陳出新帶給中國思想的,是積極的和進步的;然而,從大歷史高處考量,其後果和影響卻是複雜而一言難盡的。

Recently, some scholars put into question the scholarly consensus regarding Buddhist influences on Zhu Xi’s 朱熹 (1130–1200) theory of liyi fenshu 理一分殊 (‘One Principle in Multiple Manifestations’), which makes it necessary to re-examine this issue. By re-reading the three metaphors of shuiyue 水月 (Water-Moon) in the Zhuzi yulu 朱子語類 (A Collection of Conversations with Master Zhu), we could re-affirm the traditional opinion that a relationship indeed exists between Buddhism and Zhu Xi’s theory. However, the traditional opinion only proves that a relationship ‘existed’ and yet does not specify ‘how’ and ‘why’ this relationship came about. Hence, as modern scholars, we should position the traditional theories in the matrix of modern thoughts, so as to re-evaluate their validity and thereby reach places where traditional theories could not. A couple of issues in particular should warrant our attention, such as the Chan and poetic transformation of shuiyue which originated in the Huayan jing 華嚴經 [Buddhâvataṃsaka-sūtra]; the elements of the Chan philosophy in the theory of liyi fenshu; as well as the influence of the Huayan and Chan tradition thereon. In summary, shuiyue carries a poetic connotation of Chan Buddhism as well as the meditative insight of the Huayan Buddhist doctrine of the ‘perfect interfusion’ (Ch. yuanrong 圓融), which is then incorporated into Zhu Xi’s philosophical construct of liyi fenshu. The transformation that shuiyue underwent—from a religious symbol to a poetic imagery and to a philosophical concept—makes up the lack of philosophical and visual thinking in the traditional Confucian thoughts. Likewise, Chan Buddhism, which had passed its heyday, also became invigorated in this process: it was absorbed into the Neo-Confucianist thoughts and thereby continued exerting real—though imperceptible—influences on the Chinese culture. The case of shuiyue could perhaps reveal a new angle to studying the sinification of Buddhism. Viewing the Chinese intellectual history in terms of its successive stages, we could see how such absorption of Buddhist elements into Confucianism has propelled the Chinese philosophy to a new stage, bringing about positive progress for the Chinese thoughts. However, as for the specific consequences and influences of this transformation on the history at large, they would be too complex to unravel in a short article.

關鍵詞(Keywords):禪佛教(Chan Buddhism)、水月(water moon)、意象(images)、詩學(Poetry)、理一分殊(One principle in multiple manifesations)、理學(Neo-Confucianism)、《朱子語類》(Zhuzi yulei [A Collection of Conversations with Master Zhu])

 

關於作者:

張軼男
1972年生,文學博士,北華大學文學院副教授,中國國家留學基金委公派加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學(UBC)訪問學者(2017–2018年)。

近十年來,發表學術論文20餘篇(CSSCI檢索論文8篇);出版學術專著一部:《禪解杜詩》(中國社會科學出版社,2014年),《光明日報》發表書評《詩聖的禪境》http://epaper.gmw.cn/gmrb/html/2015-01/20/nw.D110000gmrb_20150120_2-10.htm。

陳金華
英屬哥倫比亞大學東亞思想史講座教授,曾任加拿大國立東亞佛教講座教授(CRC)多年。研究領域涉及東亞政教關係,中古時期僧傳(聖傳)文學,佛教聖地,舍利崇拜,佛教與技術革新,以及佛教翻譯等領域。研究成果包括:已出版六部專著,合編十本書籍,發表七十多篇論文。這些成果曾獲眾多基金和獎項,包括日本學術振興會、加拿大國家社科基金和Peter Wall 高級研究院、德國洪堡基金會和馬普研究所以及美國人文研究中心等機構的研究基金。目前領導一項為期多年的旨在重新建構佛學與東亞宗教重要面向的國際性與跨學科的龐大項目,由加拿大政府資助並得到國際上諸多名校與基金會的支持。

 

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