《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第二卷‧第二期, 张轶男、陈金华

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第二卷‧第二期(2019):208–243; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201910_2(2).0006

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论禅佛水月与“理一分殊”(On the Chan Buddhist Metaphor of Shuiyue 水月[“Water-Moon”] and Zhu Xi’s Theory of Liyi Fenshu 理一分殊 [One Principle in Multiple Manifestations])

张轶男(ZHANG Yi’nan)、陈金华(CHEN Jinhua)
(北华大学Beihua University)、(英属哥伦比亚大学 [UBC])

摘要(Abstract):近来有学者对佛教与朱熹理一分殊的影响关系提出异议,使这个已为学界广泛接受的案头习见有了重新讨论的必要。通过对《朱子语类》中水月三喻的再解读,可以确认传统认识对于两者关系的事实判断没有问题,问题在于止于两者“有”关系,而对两者关系究竟“如何”又“为何”如此,并无深谈。现代思考应该做的,是将传统理论放在现代的坐标系中,对其事实判断予以价值重估,进而探索传统未到之处。为此,需解决华严水月的禅化与诗化、理一分殊的禅学因数以及理一分殊的华严、禅宗影响说等几个问题。要之,禅佛水月以其诗学象征,承载着华严圆融辩证的禅理,融入朱熹理一分殊的思辨哲学中;水月之喻从宗教意象、到诗学意象、到哲学意象的嬗变,弥补了旧儒学思辨哲学与形象思维的先天不足,使“盛极而衰”的禅学借理学之体得以新生,对中国文化产生了存在而不可见的影响,此或可为佛教中国化的另一种解读。从阶段性历史的角度看,援佛入儒推动了中国哲学的升华,这一推陈出新带给中国思想的,是积极的和进步的;然而,从大历史高处考量,其后果和影响却是复杂而一言难尽的。

Recently, some scholars put into question the scholarly consensus regarding Buddhist influences on Zhu Xi’s 朱熹 (1130–1200) theory of liyi fenshu 理一分殊 (‘One Principle in Multiple Manifestations’), which makes it necessary to re-examine this issue. By re-reading the three metaphors of shuiyue 水月 (Water-Moon) in the Zhuzi yulu 朱子語類 (A Collection of Conversations with Master Zhu), we could re-affirm the traditional opinion that a relationship indeed exists between Buddhism and Zhu Xi’s theory. However, the traditional opinion only proves that a relationship ‘existed’ and yet does not specify ‘how’ and ‘why’ this relationship came about. Hence, as modern scholars, we should position the traditional theories in the matrix of modern thoughts, so as to re-evaluate their validity and thereby reach places where traditional theories could not. A couple of issues in particular should warrant our attention, such as the Chan and poetic transformation of shuiyue which originated in the Huayan jing 華嚴經 [Buddhâvataṃsaka-sūtra]; the elements of the Chan philosophy in the theory of liyi fenshu; as well as the influence of the Huayan and Chan tradition thereon. In summary, shuiyue carries a poetic connotation of Chan Buddhism as well as the meditative insight of the Huayan Buddhist doctrine of the ‘perfect interfusion’ (Ch. yuanrong 圓融), which is then incorporated into Zhu Xi’s philosophical construct of liyi fenshu. The transformation that shuiyue underwent—from a religious symbol to a poetic imagery and to a philosophical concept—makes up the lack of philosophical and visual thinking in the traditional Confucian thoughts. Likewise, Chan Buddhism, which had passed its heyday, also became invigorated in this process: it was absorbed into the Neo-Confucianist thoughts and thereby continued exerting real—though imperceptible—influences on the Chinese culture. The case of shuiyue could perhaps reveal a new angle to studying the sinification of Buddhism. Viewing the Chinese intellectual history in terms of its successive stages, we could see how such absorption of Buddhist elements into Confucianism has propelled the Chinese philosophy to a new stage, bringing about positive progress for the Chinese thoughts. However, as for the specific consequences and influences of this transformation on the history at large, they would be too complex to unravel in a short article.

关键词(Keywords):禅佛教(Chan Buddhism)、水月(water moon)、意象(images)、诗学(Poetry)、理一分殊(One principle in multiple manifesations)、理学(Neo-Confucianism)、 《朱子语类》(Zhuzi yulei [A Collection of Conversations with Master Zhu])

 

关于作者:

张轶男
1972年生,文学博士,北华大学文学院副教授,中国国家留学基金委公派加拿大英属哥伦比亚大学(UBC)访问学者(2017–2018年)。

近十年来,发表学术论文20余篇(CSSCI检索论文8篇);出版学术专著一部:《禅解杜诗》(中国社会科学出版社,2014年),《光明日报》发表书评《诗圣的禅境》http://epaper.gmw.cn/gmrb/html/2015-01/20/nw.D110000gmrb_20150120_2-10.htm。

陈金华
英属哥伦比亚大学东亚思想史讲座教授,曾任加拿大国立东亚佛教讲座教授(CRC)多年。研究领域涉及东亚政教关系,中古时期僧传(圣传)文学,佛教圣地,舍利崇拜,佛教与技术革新,以及佛教翻译等领域。研究成果包括:已出版六部专著,合编十本书籍,发表七十多篇论文。这些成果曾获众多基金和奖项,包括日本学术振兴会、加拿大国家社科基金和Peter Wall 高级研究院、德国洪堡基金会和马普研究所以及美国人文研究中心等机构的研究基金。目前领导一项为期多年的旨在重新建构佛学与东亚宗教重要面向的国际性与跨学科的庞大项目,由加拿大政府资助并得到国际上诸多名校与基金会的支持。

 

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