《華林國際佛學學刊》: 電子期刊 第三卷‧第一期, 陳志遠

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第三卷‧第一期(2020):1–33; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202004_3(1).0001
(本文屬於專刊《宗教石刻研究與玄奘研究》

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《慧光墓誌》所見北朝戒律學的展開(The Spread of Monastic Precepts in the North China during the 5-6th Century: Re-reading Huiguang’s Tomb Inscription)

陳志遠(CHEN Zhiyuan)
中國社會科學院古代史研究所(Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)

摘要(Abstract):《慧光墓誌》出土於2002 年,今藏河北墨香閣。墓誌提供了北朝戒律學興起的一些關鍵線索。誌文明確記載慧光卒於538年,由此推算其早年與佛陀禪師的會面的地點在平城而非洛陽。這也是北朝《四分律》興起的中心。慧光對《四分律》學的貢獻在於他參考諸部廣律,撰作律疏,不久以後《四分律》取代了從南朝傳來的《摩訶僧祇律》,成為北朝戒律學的主流。誌文還提到慧光為孝靜帝“戒師”,結合《續高僧傳》所載僧達為孝靜帝授菩薩戒之事,師徒二人兩度為菩薩戒師的現象,體現了北朝僧界對南朝文化的熱切模仿。

The ‘Huiguang muzhi’ 慧光墓誌 (Huiguang’s Tomb Inscription), excavated in 2002, yields some valuable clues to the investigation of the early spread of Buddhist precepts in the northern dynasties. The inscription clearly states that Huiguang died in the year of 538, which helps to clarify the fact that Huiguang first met the meditation monk ‘Fotuo’ 佛陀 in the city of Pingcheng 平城 rather than Luoyang. And Pingcheng, the old capital of the Northern Wei, was then the center for the study of Sifen lü of the Dharmagupta tradition. Huiguang composed the commentary on Sifen lü, which was characterized by the thorough comparison of vinaya texts of different schools. Soon after his death, Sifen lü started to prevail in the north and gradually triumphed over the Mahāsaṃghika Vinaya which was introduced from the south in the mid-fifth century. The inscription also reports that Emperor Xiaojing 孝靜帝 (r. 534–550) received the bodhisattva precepts under the guidance of Huiguang. Considering the records in the Xu Gaoseng zhuan 續高僧傳 [Extended Biographical Collection of Eminent Monks], we conclude that the emperor received the bodhisattva precepts twice: first from Huiguang, and then from Huiguang’s disciple Sengda 僧達 (475–556) after he returned from the south. Viewed within a broader context, this fact most likely demonstrates the zeal of the monastic community to emulate the cultural innovations of the emperor Liang Wudi 梁武帝 (r. 502–549).

關鍵詞(Keywords):慧光(Huiguang)、《四分律》(Sifen lü)、義疏(commentarial tradition)、菩薩戒(bodhisattva precepts)、梁武帝(Liang Wudi)

 

關於作者:陳志遠,1983 年生,中國社會科學院古代史研究所助理研究員。博士畢業於北京大學歷史系,曾到京都大學、臺灣法鼓佛教學院短期訪學。主要從事六朝佛教史,儒佛交涉的研究。出版專著《六朝佛教史研究論集》《慢讀漫筆》。

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