《华林国际佛学学刊》: 电子期刊 第三卷‧第一期, 陈志远

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第三卷‧第一期(2020):1–33; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202004_3(1).0001
(本文属于专刊《宗教石刻研究与玄奘研究》

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《慧光墓志》所见北朝戒律学的展开(The Spread of Monastic Precepts in the North China during the 5-6th Century: Re-reading Huiguang’s Tomb Inscription)

陈志远(CHEN Zhiyuan)
中国社会科学院古代史研究所(Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)

摘要(Abstract):《慧光墓志》出土于2002 年,今藏河北墨香阁。墓志提供了北朝戒律学兴起的一些关键线索。志文明确记载慧光卒于538年,由此推算其早年与佛陀禅师的会面的地点在平城而非洛阳。这也是北朝《四分律》兴起的中心。慧光对《四分律》学的贡献在于他参考诸部广律,撰作律疏,不久以后《四分律》取代了从南朝传来的《摩诃僧祇律》,成为北朝戒律学的主流。志文还提到慧光为孝静帝“戒师”,结合《续高僧传》所载僧达为孝静帝授菩萨戒之事,师徒二人两度为菩萨戒师的现象,体现了北朝僧界对南朝文化的热切模仿。

The ‘Huiguang muzhi’ 慧光墓誌 (Huiguang’s Tomb Inscription), excavated in 2002, yields some valuable clues to the investigation of the early spread of Buddhist precepts in the northern dynasties. The inscription clearly states that Huiguang died in the year of 538, which helps to clarify the fact that Huiguang first met the meditation monk ‘Fotuo’ 佛陀 in the city of Pingcheng 平城 rather than Luoyang. And Pingcheng, the old capital of the Northern Wei, was then the center for the study of Sifen lü of the Dharmagupta tradition. Huiguang composed the commentary on Sifen lü, which was characterized by the thorough comparison of vinaya texts of different schools. Soon after his death, Sifen lü started to prevail in the north and gradually triumphed over the Mahāsaṃghika Vinaya which was introduced from the south in the mid-fifth century. The inscription also reports that Emperor Xiaojing 孝靜帝 (r. 534–550) received the bodhisattva precepts under the guidance of Huiguang. Considering the records in the Xu Gaoseng zhuan 續高僧傳 [Extended Biographical Collection of Eminent Monks], we conclude that the emperor received the bodhisattva precepts twice: first from Huiguang, and then from Huiguang’s disciple Sengda 僧達 (475–556) after he returned from the south. Viewed within a broader context, this fact most likely demonstrates the zeal of the monastic community to emulate the cultural innovations of the emperor Liang Wudi 梁武帝 (r. 502–549).

关键词(Keywords):慧光(Huiguang)、《四分律》(Sifen lü)、义疏(commentarial tradition)、菩萨戒(bodhisattva precepts)、梁武帝(Liang Wudi)

 

关于作者:陈志远,1983 年生,中国社会科学院古代史研究所助理研究员。博士毕业于北京大学历史系,曾到京都大学、台湾法鼓佛教学院短期访学。主要从事六朝佛教史,儒佛交涉的研究。出版专著《六朝佛教史研究论集》《慢读漫笔》。

 

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