《華林國際佛學學刊》: 電子期刊 第三卷‧第一期, 楊劍霄

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第三卷‧第一期(2020):207–230; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202004_3(1).0009
(本文屬於專刊《宗教石刻研究與玄奘研究》

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讖緯、信仰與慈恩之衰——再論法相唯識宗衰亡問題(Chengwei [Prophecies and Weft-text], Faith and the Decline if the Cien Tradition: Another Look at the Decline and Death of the Chinese Yogâcāra tradition)

楊劍霄(YANG Jianxiao)
南京師範大學(Nanjing Normal University)

摘要Abstract)在玄奘弟子中,窺基、普光無疑佔據著中心位置,特別是窺基的核心地位實際上有一段漫長的形成過程,直到《成唯識論》的完成方正式確立。窺基也由此成為唯識宗的實際領袖。但自武則天執政起,就因玄奘僧團前朝色彩濃重等原因,而與以窺基為首的慈恩寺系關係緊張。佛教的中心也偏移至西明寺。正因為此,窺基在最應發展唯識宗的時間裡被逼無奈離開長安,赴各地行化。唯識宗也逐漸脫離佛教的中心舞臺。玄宗之時,唯識三祖慧沼因犯金刀之讖及堅持彌勒信仰等因素,正中玄宗禁忌。這無疑促使唯識宗徹底走向衰敗。

Among all of Xuanzang’s disciples, Kuiji 窺基 (632–682) and Puguang 普光 (?–664?) held, without doubt, the most important positions. Kuiji took a long time to form his core position, which was finally established with the completion of the Cheng weishi lun 成唯識論 [Discourse on the Theory of Consciousness-only]. After this, Kuiji became the leader of the Chinese Yogâcāra tradition (i.e. Weishi zong 唯實宗 [Tradition of Consciousness-only]). However, since Empress Wu 武則天 (r. 690–705) ascended throne, relations between the Ci’en Temple 慈恩寺 led by Kuiji and the empress became tense because of the obvious connection that Xuanzan’s disciples maintained with the former dynasty. Meanwhile, the center of Buddhism shifted from the Ci’en Temple to the Ximing Temple 西明寺. Kuiji was therefore forced to leave Chang’an and lost his best chance to develop Weishi Buddhism, which had just departed from Buddhism’s center stage. Under the administration of Emperor Xuanzong of Tang 唐玄宗 (r. 712–756), Huizhao 慧沼 (648–714) insisted on the prophecy of Gold Knife (金刀之讖) and the Maitreya-based faith which offended Xuanzong, resulting in the final decline of Weishi Buddhism.

關鍵詞(Keywords):玄奘(Xuanzang)、窺基(Kuiji)、慧沼(Huizhao)、唯識宗(Weishi Buddhism; Tradition of Consciousness-only)

 

關於作者:楊劍霄, 男,1987 年 8 月生,江蘇南京人。南京師範大學社會發展學院社會工作專業本科,南京大學哲學系中國哲學專業碩士,南京大學哲學系宗教學專業博士,清華大學人文學院博士後。現為南京師範大學社會發展學院社會學與社會工作系講師。主要研究方向為宗教社會學、佛教社會生活史、唐代唯識學。已出版專著《唐代法相唯識宗興衰史研究》《“一帶一路”高僧傳》,發表論文十餘篇。主持國家社科基金“‘一帶一路’佛教文明交流史研究”一項。

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