《華林國際佛學學刊》: 電子期刊 第三卷‧第一期, 張利明

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第三卷‧第一期(2020):231–263; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202004_3(1).0010
(本文屬於專刊《宗教石刻研究與玄奘研究》

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玄奘對觀音信仰的新證據 ——以甘肅民樂童子寺石窟西遊記與觀音救難壁畫為例(New Evidences for Xuanzang’s Belief in Avalokiteśvara: A Case Study of the Murals of Journey to the West and Avalokiteśvara’s Salvation in the Grottoes of Tongzi Temple in Minle, Gansu)

張利明(ZHANG Liming)
浙江大學(Zhejiang University)

摘要Abstract):宋、金、西夏時期,唐僧取經圖像多出現在大幅水月觀音變相中,以此來表現玄奘對觀音的信仰。到了清代,唐僧取經圖像演變為西遊記壁畫,並與此時流行的觀音救難圖像組合出現,共同表現觀音信仰。本文對民樂童子寺石窟作了詳細的考察與測繪,解讀出了尚未被辨識的西遊記壁畫的內容,並從中分辨出4 幅觀音救難壁畫。同時,結合壁畫的題材選擇和張掖地區普遍流行西遊記壁畫與觀音救難壁畫組合的現象,對壁畫所體現的觀音信仰作了探討並建立起了張掖地區此類壁畫發展演變的時空序列。

In the Northern Song and Western Xia Dynasty, the images of Xuanzang searching for Buddhist Scriptures mostly appeared in the sutra painting of water moon Guanyin 水月觀音, in order to show Xuanzang’s belief in Avalokiteśvara. In the Qing Dynasty, the images of Xuanzang searching for Buddhist Scriptures were transformed into the murals of Journey to the West, and combined with the popular murals of Avalokiteśvara’s Salvation at this time to show the belief in Avalokiteśvara. This paper investigates and maps the grottoes of the Tongzi temple 童子寺 in Minle 民樂 in detail, interprets the unidentified murals of Journey to the West, and identifies four murals of Avalokiteśvara’s Salvation. At the same time, it considers how murals’ themes were selected and the common phenomenon of combining the murals of Journey to the West with the murals of Avalokiteśvara’s Salvation in Zhangye 張掖 area. It discusses the belief in Avalokiteśvara reflected in those murals and establishes the chronological and spatial sequence of the development and evolution of such murals in Zhangye area.

關鍵詞(Keywords):民樂童子寺石窟(Tongzi Temple Grottoes in Minle)、西遊記壁畫(Murals of Journey to the West)、觀音救難壁畫(Murals of Avalokiteśvara’s Salvation)、觀音信仰(Belief in Avalokitesvara)

 

關於作者:張利明(1992 年-),男,河北靈壽人。蘭州大學歷史學學士、考古學碩士,浙江大學歷史系博士生。從事中國佛教史、犍陀羅佛教、玄奘與西遊記圖像研究。在《石窟寺研究》《敦煌研究》《澎湃新聞》等期刊和媒體上發文多篇,2018 年與導師合作出版《西遊記壁畫與玄奘取經圖像》一書。

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