《華林國際佛學學刊》: 電子期刊 第三卷‧第一期, 劉泳斯

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第三卷‧第一期(2020):58–78; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202004_3(1).0003
(本文屬於專刊《宗教石刻研究與玄奘研究》

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道㲀《顯密圓通成佛心要》新考A New Study on Xianmi Yuantong Chengfo xinyao [The Essentials of Attaining Buddhahood according to Perfect and Penetrative Teaching of Esoteric and Exoteric Traditions] by Liao Buddhist Master Daochen

劉泳斯(LIU Yongsi)
中央民族大學(Minzu University of China)

摘要Abstract):准提法在中國佛教界,特別是居士信仰群體中是僅次於淨土信仰的重要修行法門。遼代道㲀《顯密圓通成佛心要》奠定了中國准提法門的基礎。本文利用《燕京永安寺釋迦舍利塔碑記》等遼代石刻、經幢等資料以及黑水城文獻,大體將《顯密圓通成佛心要》的成書年代確定在11 世紀80 年代; 並通過遼代契丹藏增補情況的考察,以及比對黑水城發現的道㲀《鏡心錄》西夏文譯本等資料,提出道㲀早年比較關心禪宗,尤其重視荷澤宗,宗密關於華嚴與禪宗匯通的禪教一致思想,而後,由於遼代契丹藏增補等契機,道㲀對新譯密教典籍發生興趣,學術研究重點轉向密教, 撰寫《顯密圓通成佛心要》,弘揚准提法門。《顯密圓通成佛心要》對待禪、密的不同態度及其前後發展變化,也可以管窺宋、遼佛教逐漸呈現出來的巨大差異性。

In Chinese Buddhist circles, especially among lay Buddhist groups, Cundī is the subject of an important belief practice that is second only to Pure Land beliefs. The Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao 顯密圓通成佛心要 [Essentials of Attaining Buddhahood according to Perfect and Penetrative Teaching of Esoteric and Exoteric Traditions] by the Liao Buddhist Master Daochen 道㲀 (11–12th c.) laid the foundation for Cundī-practice in China. Using Liao Dynasty stone inscriptions, stone pillars such as the ‘Yanjing Yongan si Shijia Sheli ta beiji’ 燕京永安寺釋迦舍利塔碑記 [Inscription of Buddha Śākya[muni]’s Śarīra Stupa of the Yongan Temple in Yanjing], and the literature of Khara-Khoto, we can date the composition of Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao to the 1180s; At the same time, an investigation into supplemental texts of Liao Dynasty Khitan canon, and a comparison with the Tangut translation of the Jingxin lu 鏡心錄 [Account of Mirroring Mind] by Daochen discovered in Khara-Khoto, shows that Daochen paid more attention to Chan Buddhism in his early years, and paid special attention to the Heze sect 荷澤宗, and Zongmi’s 宗密 (780–841) thoughts about the fundamental congruence of the Chan teachings and Huayan doctrinal approaches. But later, after encountering the supplemental texts of the Liao Dynasty Khitan canon, Daochen became interested in newly translated Esoteric Buddhist scriptures. Thus, his studies turned to Esoteric Buddhism, and wrote the Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao to promote Cundī practice. Therefore, from the differing attitudes towards Chan and Esoteric Buddhism in the Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao, and changes in Daochen’s thought before and after writing this text, we can gradually have a glimpse of the great differences between Buddhism in the Song and Liao Dynasties. 

關鍵詞(Keywords):道㲀(Daochen)、《顯密圓通成佛心要》(Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao)、《鏡心錄》(Jingxin lu)、遼代佛教(Liao Buddhism)

 

關於作者:劉泳斯,女,香港中文大學博士,現為中央民族大學哲學與宗教學學院講師。主要研究方向為中國近現代宗教史、民間宗教。出版學術專著《桂東北民間信仰的近現代變遷》,在《中國人民大學複印報刊資料·宗教》《世界宗教文化》《中國文化研究》《中央民族大學學報(哲學社會科學版)》《中國宗教》《文化縱橫》《民俗與文化(臺灣)》等學術刊物上發表過多篇學術論文,並在《中國社會科學報》、《中國民族報·宗教週刊》上發表多篇學術文章。

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