《华林国际佛学学刊》: 电子期刊 第三卷‧第一期, 刘泳斯

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第三卷‧第一期(2020):58–78; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202004_3(1).0003
(本文属于专刊《宗教石刻研究与玄奘研究》

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道㲀《显密圆通成佛心要》新考A New Study on Xianmi Yuantong Chengfo xinyao [The Essentials of Attaining Buddhahood according to Perfect and Penetrative Teaching of Esoteric and Exoteric Traditions] by Liao Buddhist Master Daochen

刘泳斯(LIU Yongsi)
中央民族大学(Minzu University of China)

摘要(Abstract):准提法在中国佛教界,特别是居士信仰群体中是仅次于净土信仰的重要修行法门。辽代道㲀《显密圆通成佛心要》奠定了中国准提法门的基础。本文利用《燕京永安寺释迦舍利塔碑记》等辽代石刻、经幢等资料以及黑水城文献,大体将《显密圆通成佛心要》的成书年代确定在11 世纪80 年代; 并通过辽代契丹藏增补情况的考察,以及比对黑水城发现的道㲀《镜心录》西夏文译本等资料,提出道㲀早年比较关心禅宗,尤其重视荷泽宗,宗密关于华严与禅宗汇通的禅教一致思想,而后,由于辽代契丹藏增补等契机,道㲀对新译密教典籍发生兴趣,学术研究重点转向密教, 撰写《显密圆通成佛心要》,弘扬准提法门。 《显密圆通成佛心要》对待禅、密的不同态度及其前后发展变化,也可以管窥宋、辽佛教逐渐呈现出来的巨大差异性。

In Chinese Buddhist circles, especially among lay Buddhist groups, Cundī is the subject of an important belief practice that is second only to Pure Land beliefs. The Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao 顯密圓通成佛心要 [Essentials of Attaining Buddhahood according to Perfect and Penetrative Teaching of Esoteric and Exoteric Traditions] by the Liao Buddhist Master Daochen 道㲀 (11–12th c.) laid the foundation for Cundī-practice in China. Using Liao Dynasty stone inscriptions, stone pillars such as the ‘Yanjing Yongan si Shijia Sheli ta beiji’ 燕京永安寺釋迦舍利塔碑記 [Inscription of Buddha Śākya[muni]’s Śarīra Stupa of the Yongan Temple in Yanjing], and the literature of Khara-Khoto, we can date the composition of Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao to the 1180s; At the same time, an investigation into supplemental texts of Liao Dynasty Khitan canon, and a comparison with the Tangut translation of the Jingxin lu 鏡心錄 [Account of Mirroring Mind] by Daochen discovered in Khara-Khoto, shows that Daochen paid more attention to Chan Buddhism in his early years, and paid special attention to the Heze sect 荷澤宗, and Zongmi’s 宗密 (780–841) thoughts about the fundamental congruence of the Chan teachings and Huayan doctrinal approaches. But later, after encountering the supplemental texts of the Liao Dynasty Khitan canon, Daochen became interested in newly translated Esoteric Buddhist scriptures. Thus, his studies turned to Esoteric Buddhism, and wrote the Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao to promote Cundī practice. Therefore, from the differing attitudes towards Chan and Esoteric Buddhism in the Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao, and changes in Daochen’s thought before and after writing this text, we can gradually have a glimpse of the great differences between Buddhism in the Song and Liao Dynasties. 

关键词(Keywords):道㲀(Daochen)、《显密圆通成佛心要》(Xianmi Yuantong chengfo xinyao)、《镜心录》(Jingxin lu)、辽代佛教(Liao Buddhism)

 

关于作者:刘泳斯,女,香港中文大学博士,现为中央民族大学哲学与宗教学学院讲师。主要研究方向为中国近现代宗教史、民间宗教。出版学术专著《桂东北民间信仰的近现代变迁》,在《中国人民大学复印报刊资料·宗教》《世界宗教文化》《中国文化研究》《中央民族大学学报(哲学社会科学版)》《中国宗教》《文化纵横》《民俗与文化(台湾)》等学术刊物上发表过多篇学术论文,并在《中国社会科学报》、《中国民族报·宗教周刊》上发表多篇学术文章。

 

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