《華林國際佛學學刊》: 電子期刊 第三卷‧第二期, 韓笑

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第三卷‧第二期(2020):1–19; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202010_3(2).0001
(本文屬於專刊《佛教與人工智能與東亞佛教歷史研究》

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“機器之心”——上座部佛教視角下的人工智能之分析(The Heart of Machine: An analysis of Artificial Intelligence from Perspective of Tharavada Buddhism)

韓笑(HAN Xiao)
加拿大魁北克大學蒙特利爾分校宗教學系(University of Quebec in Montreal)

摘要Abstract):本文試圖從上座部佛教視角來回答人工智能是否為人這個問題。本文首先考察了佛經中對“有情眾生”的定義,並主要 引用了上座部的五尼柯耶,同時參考葉均翻譯的《清淨道論》和 菩提比丘的《阿毘達磨概要精解》,分析作為“有情眾生”的人類與人工智能有哪些方面的不同。結論是 :作為一個人類,應該有“五蘊和合”作為物理基礎,有完整的“心路過程”作為認識基礎,基於認知過程中產生的苦樂感受和執著所造的不同業報和修行,到達不同的意識層次。有情在修行中有“四無量心”,以個體 的求得解脫和利益眾生作為最終極的修行、道德目標。而相較之下, 目前人工智能本身不屬於有情眾生的範疇,認知過程與人類迥異, 在認知中沒有苦樂等覺受,無法形成連續的意識體,更無法造業 輪迴。與此同時人工智能不存在慈悲心和利他精神,無法像人類 一樣體察眾生苦難並且捨己為人。因此人工智能目前只能算一種 機械模擬的智能體。

This article attempts to answer the question as to whether Artificial Intelligent (AI) is or can be human from the perspective of Theravada Buddhism. First, it examines the definition of ‘sentient beings’ primarily based on Five Nikāya within Theravada traditions. Meanwhile, it analyzes the ways human beings as sentient beings differ from AI, with reference to the Chinese version of Visuddhimagga translated by Ye Jun 葉均, and the Comprehensive Manual of Ahbhidhamma written by Bhikkhu Bodhi. The conclusion is: human beings are physically congregated of five elements accompanied with a consciousness process as their cognitive factor, and are able to attain different levels of consciousness according to feelings of pleasure or suffering that originate from cognitive activity and various karma created by attachment to feelings. Moreover, sentient beings can practice ‘Four Unlimited Hearts’ (si wuliang xin 四無量心) in order to achieve liberation or to benefit all beings as the ultimate goal of Buddhist practice and moral discipline (xiuxing 修行). Compared to sentient beings, AI cannot currently be categorized within the realm of sentient beings. This is not only because its so-called ‘cognitive process’ is fundamentally different from that of human beings, but it is also unable to develop a continual cognitive factor that is indispensable in human recognition process, not to mention that AI is unable to create dharma to rebirth in the life-birth cycle. Furthermore, AI does not possess the sense of compassion and benevolent altruism toward others; that is, AI is not capable of feeling the suffering and bitterness of sentient beings. Overall, until now AI can only be identified as a mechanically stimulated ‘agent’.

關鍵詞(Keywords):上座部佛教(Theravada Buddhism)、五蘊(five aggregates)、五門心路(Five Mind Door)、宇宙觀(Buddhist cosmology)、人工智能(Artificial Intelligence)

 

關於作者:韓笑目前是魁北克大學蒙特利爾分校的宗教研究系博士生,她目前感興趣的領域有上座部佛教和當代的佛教實踐、加拿大魁北克的中國佛教群體, 離散群體與數位化佛教。碩士階段在韓國學習文化人類學,碩士論文是關於瀾滄布朗族的普洱茶生產、南傳上座部佛教的宗教實踐以及其民族身份建構。

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