《华林国际佛学学刊》: 电子期刊 第三卷‧第二期, 韩笑

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第三卷‧第二期(2020):1–19; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202010_3(2).0001
(本文属于专刊《佛教与人工智能与东亚佛教历史研究》

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“机器之心”——上座部佛教视角下的人工智能之分析(The Heart of Machine: An analysis of Artificial Intelligence from Perspective of Tharavada Buddhism)

韩笑(HAN Xiao)
加拿大魁北克大学蒙特利尔分校宗教学系(University of Quebec in Montreal)

摘要(Abstract):本文试图从上座部佛教视角来回答人工智能是否为人这个问题。本文首先考察了佛经中对“有情众生”的定义,并主要引用了上座部的五尼柯耶,同时参考叶均翻译的《清净道论》和菩提比丘的《阿毗达磨概要精解》,分析作为“有情众生”的人类与人工智能有哪些方面的不同。结论是:作为一个人类,应该有“五蕴和合”作为物理基础,有完整的“心路过程”作为认识基础,基于认知过程中产生的苦乐感受和执着所造的不同业报和修行,到达不同的意识层次。有情在修行中有“四无量心”,以个体 的求得解脱和利益众生作为最终极的修行、道德目标。而相较之下, 目前人工智能本身不属于有情众生的范畴,认知过程与人类迥异, 在认知中没有苦乐等觉受,无法形成连续的意识体,更无法造业 轮回。与此同时人工智能不存在慈悲心和利他精神,无法像人类 一样体察众生苦难并且舍己为人。因此人工智能目前只能算一种 机械模拟的智能体。

This article attempts to answer the question as to whether Artificial Intelligent (AI) is or can be human from the perspective of Theravada Buddhism. First, it examines the definition of ‘sentient beings’ primarily based on Five Nikāya within Theravada traditions. Meanwhile, it analyzes the ways human beings as sentient beings differ from AI, with reference to the Chinese version of Visuddhimagga translated by Ye Jun 葉均, and the Comprehensive Manual of Ahbhidhamma written by Bhikkhu Bodhi. The conclusion is: human beings are physically congregated of five elements accompanied with a consciousness process as their cognitive factor, and are able to attain different levels of consciousness according to feelings of pleasure or suffering that originate from cognitive activity and various karma created by attachment to feelings. Moreover, sentient beings can practice ‘Four Unlimited Hearts’ (si wuliang xin 四無量心) in order to achieve liberation or to benefit all beings as the ultimate goal of Buddhist practice and moral discipline (xiuxing 修行). Compared to sentient beings, AI cannot currently be categorized within the realm of sentient beings. This is not only because its so-called ‘cognitive process’ is fundamentally different from that of human beings, but it is also unable to develop a continual cognitive factor that is indispensable in human recognition process, not to mention that AI is unable to create dharma to rebirth in the life-birth cycle. Furthermore, AI does not possess the sense of compassion and benevolent altruism toward others; that is, AI is not capable of feeling the suffering and bitterness of sentient beings. Overall, until now AI can only be identified as a mechanically stimulated ‘agent’.

关键词(Keywords):上座部佛教(Theravada Buddhism)、五蕴(five aggregates)、五门心路(Five Mind Door)、宇宙观(Buddhist cosmology)、人工智能(Artificial Intelligence)

 

关于作者:韩笑目前是魁北克大学蒙特利尔分校的宗教研究系博士生,她目前感兴趣的领域有上座部佛教和当代的佛教实践、加拿大魁北克的中国佛教群体, 离散群体与数位化佛教。硕士阶段在韩国学习文化人类学,硕士论文是关于澜沧布朗族的普洱茶生产、南传上座部佛教的宗教实践以及其民族身份建构。


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