《華林國際佛學學刊》: 電子期刊 第三卷‧第二期, 王勇

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第三卷‧第二期(2020):190–214; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202010_3(2).0007
(本文屬於專刊《佛教與人工智能與東亞佛教歷史研究》

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大唐盛世與鑑真東渡——紀念大唐開基1400華誕(The Heyday of the Tang [618–907] and the Eastbound Journeys of Jianzhen 鑑真(688–763): 1400th Anniversary of the Foundation of the Great Tang Dynasty)

王勇(WANG Yong)
浙江大學(Zhejiang University)

摘要(Abstract)“文化疆域”乃指一種領先周邊且佔據主流的文化界域,它具有開放式並能跨境越界。然而當今中國的文化疆域流失嚴重,故應予關注。此文即以回顧剖析鑒真法師東渡的動機來頌揚他弘法的精神,並以此討論其在東亞文化大背景之中的重大意義。鑒真六次東渡,將佛教戒律與先進的文明帶到了日本,當代日本人在揣度鑒真東渡動機時,多立足於日本的歷史觀與社會認知,並由於其國家利益影響,故有若干誤讀或歪曲。鑒真東渡實與其佛教世界觀有關, 正是由於一種超越國家與民族藩籬,追求天下大同理想的佛教世界觀,才使得鑒真突破“限中外,隔華夷”的國家法律與傳統觀念, 願意到“蠻荒之地”普濟眾生。鑒真的東渡還與其國際化視野以及唐代的道教氛圍存有關聯。鑒真對日本文化的影響則既廣泛又深刻, 他開創了律宗傳統,還對建築、美術、工藝、書法、醫學等領域以及日本日常文化皆有影響,這體現了兩國過去友好交往對於東亞和平格局的重要意義。

‘Cultural Sphere’ refers to a sphere of influence exerted by a dominant civilization over its neighboring regions. Such sphere knows no confine and transcends boundaries. This article re-examines Jianzhen’s (Jp. Ganjin) 鑑真 (688–763) motive in travelling to Japan, in order to show his dedication to preaching the dharma and to discuss the importance of his journeys for the East Asian cultures. As it is well-known, Jianzhen has journeyed six times to Japan and brought along Buddhist vināyas and advanced culture. But when contemporary Japanese speculate on the motives behind Jianzhen’s journeys, they often do so conditioned by the Japanese historiography, social factors and national interests. As a result, their interpretation may become askew and erroneous. In reality, Jianzhen’s journeys were deeply inspired by the Buddhist worldview which transcends national and ethnic boundary in favour of an integrated harmonious world. It is influenced by this worldview that Jianzhen was able to become unfettered by the Chinese rules and mindset at the time that tended to separate what is Chinese from what is ‘barbarian’, in order to carry out his religious mission in the ‘barbarian’ land. Moreover, Jianzhen’s journeys may also be related to his own international outlook as well as the prosperity of Daoism during the Tang Dynasty. Regarding Jianzhan’s extensive and profound influences in Japan, he not only founded the vināya tradition in Japan, but has also influenced a wide range of fields such as architecture, art, craft, calligraphy and medicine. Jianzhen’s journey reflects the importance that the amicable exchange between China and Japan holds for the peace of the entire East Asia.

關鍵詞(Keywords):文化疆域(“Cultural Sphere”)、鑒真(Jianzhen/Ganjin)、東渡(Eastbound Journey)、動機(motives)、文化交流(Cultural Communication)

 

關於作者:王勇,1956 年出生。歷任杭州大學教授兼日本文化研究所所長、北京大學中文系教授、日本早稻田大學外籍教授、美國哥倫比亞大學兼任教授等, 現任浙江大學“文科領軍”教授兼日本文化研究所所長,兼任中國中外關係史學會、中國海外交通史研究會副會長。專事日本歷史文化、東亞文化交流史研究,出版中外文著作 40 餘部,中文代表著有《中日關係史考》(中央編譯出版社,1995)、《日本文化――模仿與創新的軌跡》(高教出版社,2001)、《南宋臨安对對交流》(杭州出版社,2008)、《東亞文化環流十講》(上海交通大學出版社,2018),日文代表著有《聖徳太子時空超越――歴史を動かした慧思後身説》(大修馆,1994)、《天台の流伝――智顗から最澄へ》(山川出版,1997)、《唐から見た遣唐使――混血児たちの大唐帝国》(講談社,1998)、《おん目の雫ぬぐはばや――鑑真和上新伝》(农文协出版社,2002)、《古代をいろどる国際人たち》(大樟樹出版社,2019)。2015 年因提出“書籍之路”理論而榮膺“The Japan Foundation Awards”,是繼夏衍、孫平化之後第三位獲獎中國人。目前主編兩套“十三五”國家重點出版規劃叢書《新中日文化交流史大系》《東亞筆談文獻研究叢書》;主持國家社科基金重大招標項目“東亞筆談文獻整理與研究”,致力於建構“以中國文化為源頭、國學研究為基礎、比較研究為方法、多元文明為視野”的新東亞學理論。

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