《华林国际佛学学刊》: 电子期刊 第三卷‧第二期, 王勇

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第三卷‧第二期(2020):190–214; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202010_3(2).0007
(本文属于专刊《佛教与人工智能与东亚佛教历史研究》

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大唐盛世与鉴真东渡——纪念大唐开基1400华诞(The Heyday of the Tang [618–907] and the Eastbound Journeys of Jianzhen 鑑真(688–763): 1400th Anniversary of the Foundation of the Great Tang Dynasty)

王勇(WONG Yong)
浙江大学

摘要(Abstract):“文化疆域”乃指一种领先周边且占据主流的文化界域,它具有开放式并能跨境越界。然而当今中国的文化疆域流失严重,故应予关注。此文即以回顾剖析鉴真法师东渡的动机来颂扬他弘法的精神,并以此讨论其在东亚文化大背景之中的重大意义。鉴真六次东渡,将佛教戒律与先进的文明带到了日本,当代日本人在揣度鉴真东渡动机时,多立足于日本的历史观与社会认知,并由于其国家利益影响,故有若干误读或歪曲。鉴真东渡实与其佛教世界观有关, 正是由于一种超越国家与民族藩篱,追求天下大同理想的佛教世界观,才使得鉴真突破“限中外,隔华夷”的国家法律与传统观念, 愿意到“蛮荒之地”普济众生。鉴真的东渡还与其国际化视野以及唐代的道教氛围存有关联。鉴真对日本文化的影响则既广泛又深刻, 他开创了律宗传统,还对建筑、美术、工艺、书法、医学等领域以及日本日常文化皆有影响,这体现了两国过去友好交往对于东亚和平格局的重要意义。

‘Cultural Sphere’ refers to a sphere of influence exerted by a dominant civilization over its neighboring regions. Such sphere knows no confine and transcends boundaries. This article re-examines Jianzhen’s (Jp. Ganjin) 鑑真 (688–763) motive in travelling to Japan, in order to show his dedication to preaching the dharma and to discuss the importance of his journeys for the East Asian cultures. As it is well-known, Jianzhen has journeyed six times to Japan and brought along Buddhist vināyas and advanced culture. But when contemporary Japanese speculate on the motives behind Jianzhen’s journeys, they often do so conditioned by the Japanese historiography, social factors and national interests. As a result, their interpretation may become askew and erroneous. In reality, Jianzhen’s journeys were deeply inspired by the Buddhist worldview which transcends national and ethnic boundary in favour of an integrated harmonious world. It is influenced by this worldview that Jianzhen was able to become unfettered by the Chinese rules and mindset at the time that tended to separate what is Chinese from what is ‘barbarian’, in order to carry out his religious mission in the ‘barbarian’ land. Moreover, Jianzhen’s journeys may also be related to his own international outlook as well as the prosperity of Daoism during the Tang Dynasty. Regarding Jianzhan’s extensive and profound influences in Japan, he not only founded the vināya tradition in Japan, but has also influenced a wide range of fields such as architecture, art, craft, calligraphy and medicine. Jianzhen’s journey reflects the importance that the amicable exchange between China and Japan holds for the peace of the entire East Asia.

关键词(Keywords):文化疆域(“Cultural Sphere”)、鉴真(Jianzhen/Ganjin)、东渡(Eastbound Journey)、动机(motives)、文化交流(Cultural Communication)

 

关于作者:王勇,1956 年出生。历任杭州大学教授兼日本文化研究所所长、北京大学中文系教授、日本早稻田大学外籍教授、美国哥伦比亚大学兼任教授等, 现任浙江大学“文科领军”教授兼日本文化研究所所长,兼任中国中外关系史学会、中国海外交通史研究会副会长。专事日本历史文化、东亚文化交流史研究,出版中外文著作40 余部,中文代表着有《中日关系史考》(中央编译出版社,1995)、《日本文化――模仿与创新的轨迹》 (高教出版社,2001)、《南宋临安对对交流》(杭州出版社,2008)、《东亚文化环流十讲》(上海交通大学出版社,2018),日文代表着有《圣徳太子时空超越― ―歴史を动かした慧思后身说》(大修馆,1994)、《天台の流伝――智顗から最澄へ》(山川出版,1997)、《唐から见た遣唐使――混血児たちの大唐帝国》(讲谈社,1998)、《おん目の雫ぬぐはばや――鉴真和上新伝》(农文协出版社,2002)、《古代をいろどる国际人たち》(大樟树出版社, 2019)。 2015 年因提出“书籍之路”理论而荣膺“The Japan Foundation Awards”,是继夏衍、孙平化之后第三位获奖中国人。目前主编两套“十三五”国家重点出版规划丛书《新中日文化交流史大系》《东亚笔谈文献研究丛书》;主持国家社科基金重大招标项目“东亚笔谈文献整理与研究”,致力于建构“以中国文化为源头、国学研究为基础、比较研究为方法、多元文明为视野”的新东亚学理论。


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