《華林國際佛學學刊》: 電子期刊 第三卷‧第二期, 孫國柱

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《華林國際佛學學刊》第三卷‧第二期(2020):43–57; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202010_3(2).0003
(本文屬於專刊《佛教與人工智能與東亞佛教歷史研究》

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智慧生命的多元可能——基於《起世經》文本的哲學考察(Diverse Possibilities of Sentient Beings: Philosophical Speculation Inspired by the Qishi Jing 起世經 [Sūtra on the Arising of the Worlds])

孫國柱(SUN Guozhu)
中國政法大學人文學院(China University of Political Science and Law)

摘要(Abstract)隨著科學技術的發展,人們進入了一個前所未有的時代。這個時代,人工生命、人工強化的生命逐漸登上歷史的舞臺,人們經常稱之為人工智能時代。人工智能時代的降臨,為人類的未來發展提出了前所未有的挑戰,甚至對於生命的本質也提出了嚴肅的拷問。那麼,傳統的古老智慧在這樣一個近乎全新的時代,還有用武之地嗎?在筆者看來,雖然時代在不斷變化,但是傳統的思想資源依然是我們未來出發的強大智力支援,忽略傳統思想資源是不明智的,也是不可能的。事實確實如此,在諸多可供回應時代問題的文化資源中,佛教所蘊含的寶貴智慧不容錯過。對此,本文將討論的文本鎖定在《起世經》。這是因為,佛教的世界觀乃至生命觀都是非常獨特的,概括而言即是三界、四生,這在《起世經》文本裡有十分集中的體現。不過,能夠啟發人們思考智慧生命的材料還不止如此。《起世經》最後一品《最勝品》(亦稱《天地成品》),饒有趣味地講了一個有關人類起源的故事。如果從哲學的角度加以考察,《起世經》文本所講述的故事具有深刻的思想內涵,有助於人們反思生命的可能,智慧的邊界,甚至還有生命的價值或意義本身。毫無疑問,人工智能時代需要新的文明編碼,人類社會在主體存在、文明空間乃至生命形態都會具有新的特徵,這也是本文所要討論的重點。

With the development of science and technology, human beings have entered an unprecedented era. In this era, artificial life and the artificially enhanced life gradually emerge on the historical stage. This era is often called the era of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Its advent has posed unprecedented challenges for the future development of human beings; and has even raised serious questions about the nature of life. So, will the traditional ancient wisdom still be useful in such unprecedented time? In my view, although the era is constantly changing, traditional intellectual resources will still be the powerful support for our future endeavor. It is unwise and, in any case, impossible to overlook the traditional intellectual resources. Among the abundant cultural resources that can respond to the problems of our time, the precious wisdom in Buddhism should be especially cherished. This article will focus on the Buddhist text Qishi jing 起世經 [Sūtra on the Arising of the Worlds]. It condenses the unique Buddhist view on world and on life in such concepts as the Three Realms (Ch. sanjie 三界) or the Four Lives (Ch. sishi 四世). Moreover, the last chapter of the Qishi jing, the ‘Chapter on the Ultimate Superiority’ (Ch. ‘Zuisheng pin’ 最勝品), also known as the ‘Chapter on the Establishment of Heaven and Earth’ (Ch. ‘Tiandi cheng pin’ 天地成品), tells an interesting story about the origin of mankind. If we examine this story from a philosophical perspective, we could extract profound meaning to inspire ourselves to reflect on the possibilities of life, the boundaries of wisdom, and even the value or meaning of life itself. There is no doubt that the era of AI will require a new civilizational model, while the human society will acquire new characteristics in its subjectivity, civilization and even life-form.

關鍵詞(Keywords):人工智能時代(the era of artificial intelligence)、智慧生命(intelligent life)、多元可能(multiple possibilities)、佛教哲學(Buddhist philosophy)

 

關於作者:孫國柱,1986 年生,江蘇豐縣人。哲學博士, 曾赴亞利桑那大學東亞系訪學一年。現為中國政法大學人文學院講師、碩士生導師。研究方向為儒釋道三教關係、中國哲學的現代構建、共生哲學、知識分類學,等等。在《人文宗教研究》《佛學研究》
《孔子研究》《世界宗教文化》等期刊發表論文多篇。

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