《华林国际佛学学刊》: 电子期刊 第三卷‧第二期, 孙国柱

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第三卷‧第二期(2020):43–57; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.202010_3(2).0003
(本文属于专刊《佛教与人工智能与东亚佛教历史研究》

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智慧生命的多元可能——基于《起世经》文本的哲学考察Diverse Possibilities of Sentient Beings: Philosophical Speculation Inspired by the Qishi Jing 起世經 [Sūtra on the Arising of the Worlds]

孙国柱(SUN Guozhu)
中国政法大学人文学院(China University of Political Science and Law)

摘要(Abstract)随着科学技术的发展,人们进入了一个前所未有的时代。这个时代,人工生命、人工强化的生命逐渐登上历史的舞台,人们经常称之为人工智能时代。人工智能时代的降临,为人类的未来发展提出了前所未有的挑战,甚至对于生命的本质也提出了严肃的拷问。那么,传统的古老智慧在这样一个近乎全新的时代,还有用武之地吗?在笔者看来,虽然时代在不断变化,但是传统的思想资源依然是我们未来出发的强大智力支援,忽略传统思想资源是不明智的,也是不可能的。事实确实如此,在诸多可供回应时代问题的文化资源中,佛教所蕴含的宝贵智慧不容错过。对此,本文将讨论的文本锁定在《起世经》。这是因为,佛教的世界观乃至生命观都是非常独特的,概括而言即是三界、四生,这在《起世经》文本里有十分集中的体现。不过,能够启发人们思考智慧生命的材料还不止如此。 《起世经》最后一品《最胜品》(亦称《天地成品》),饶有趣味地讲了一个有关人类起源的故事。如果从哲学的角度加以考察,《起世经》文本所讲述的故事具有深刻的思想内涵,有助于人们反思生命的可能,智慧的边界,甚至还有生命的价值或意义本身。毫无疑问,人工智能时代需要新的文明编码,人类社会在主体存在、文明空间乃至生命形态都会具有新的特征,这也是本文所要讨论的重点。

With the development of science and technology, human beings have entered an unprecedented era. In this era, artificial life and the artificially enhanced life gradually emerge on the historical stage. This era is often called the era of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Its advent has posed unprecedented challenges for the future development of human beings; and has even raised serious questions about the nature of life. So, will the traditional ancient wisdom still be useful in such unprecedented time? In my view, although the era is constantly changing, traditional intellectual resources will still be the powerful support for our future endeavor. It is unwise and, in any case, impossible to overlook the traditional intellectual resources. Among the abundant cultural resources that can respond to the problems of our time, the precious wisdom in Buddhism should be especially cherished. This article will focus on the Buddhist text Qishi jing 起世經 [Sūtra on the Arising of the Worlds]. It condenses the unique Buddhist view on world and on life in such concepts as the Three Realms (Ch. sanjie 三界) or the Four Lives (Ch. sishi 四世). Moreover, the last chapter of the Qishi jing, the ‘Chapter on the Ultimate Superiority’ (Ch. ‘Zuisheng pin’ 最勝品), also known as the ‘Chapter on the Establishment of Heaven and Earth’ (Ch. ‘Tiandi cheng pin’ 天地成品), tells an interesting story about the origin of mankind. If we examine this story from a philosophical perspective, we could extract profound meaning to inspire ourselves to reflect on the possibilities of life, the boundaries of wisdom, and even the value or meaning of life itself. There is no doubt that the era of AI will require a new civilizational model, while the human society will acquire new characteristics in its subjectivity, civilization and even life-form.

关键词(Keywords):人工智能时代(the era of artificial intelligence)、智慧生命(intelligent life)、多元可能(multiple possibilities)、佛教哲学(Buddhist philosophy)

 

关于作者:孙国柱,1986 年生,江苏丰县人。哲学博士, 曾赴亚利桑那大学东亚系访学一年。现为中国政法大学人文学院讲师、硕士生导师。研究方向为儒释道三教关系、中国哲学的现代构建、共生哲学、知识分类学,等等。在《人文宗教研究》《佛学研究》
《孔子研究》《世界宗教文化》等期刊发表论文多篇。


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