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August 2, 4, 2022 | with Yale University
Sponsor: Glorisun Charity Foundation 旭日慈善基金會
Co-hosts: FROGBEAR (www.frogbear.org) at UBC 加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學拔地入雲計畫
Global Network for Buddhist Studies @ Yale, @ UBC 旭日全球佛學研究網絡@ 耶魯, @ UBC
|Panel 1 – August 2||6:10||7:45||9:10||10:45||14:10||15:45||15:10||16:45||21:10||22:45|
|Panel 2 – August 2||7:55||9:05||10:55||12:05||15:55||17:05||16:55||18:05||22:55||0:05|
|Panel 3 – August 4||6:10||7:40||9:10||10:40||14:10||15:40||15:10||16:40||21:10||22:40|
|Panel 4 – August 4||7:50||9:20||10:50||12:20||15:50||17:20||16:50||18:20||22:50||0:20|
Panel 1: Textual Studies (Chair: Laura Boyer; Co-discussants: Matthew Orsborn [1.2 + 1.3 + 1.4] & Birgit Kellner [1.1 + 1.5])
1.1 Tiantian CAI: What we could see about prapañca
In Mūlamadhyamaka-kārikā, Nāgārjuna noted that conceptualization arises from prapañca, which indicates the fundamental account of prapañca for the elimination of suffering and further enlightenment. In Yogācāra epistemology, the notion of prapañca refers to various dimensions of the conceptual process, in aspects ranging from consciousness, language formation, discrimination, the conceptualization of subject-object duality, mental defilement, and ignorance. Given that the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra conveys the richness of early tenets for both the Yogācāra and Madhyamaka tradition, an investigation of the meaning and discourse context of prapañca is a necessity. This paper conducts a contextual examination of the concpet of prapañca, primarily addressing 1) a range of meanings; 2) possible characteristics; 3) conditions and consequences, especially the associations with the conceptualization (vikalpa); 4) the significance of the elimination that the corresponding dialogue implies.
1.2 LIAN Haochen: The Revision of Catalogues of Buddhist Scriptures in Medieval China：A study on The Chu San-tsang chi-chi出三藏记集
1.3 Valeriia SOLOSTOVA: On the influence of translations of the Buddhist sutras of the Northern and Southern dynasties period on modern Mandarin
The report is expected to discuss grammatical constructions atypical for the Chinese language associated with the influence of language contact during the Northern and Southern dynasties. With this period, linguists associate the beginning of a new stage in the evolution of the Chinese language – Middle Chinese. The translation of “Wu Shang Yi Jing” (無上依經) by Paramartha will be analyzed as a source. Cross-linguistic errors found in his translation are subsequently noticed in later non-religious texts. The report attempts to relate this to the influence of the original language of the sutras, as well as the native languages of the first translators. The study analyzes four grammars, each of which is considered from the perspective of borrowing or interference.
1.4 JIAO Xuewei: 文字學視角下的房山石經本求那跋摩《比丘尼羯磨經》研究
1.5 SHI Fachi: Diplomatic Transcriptions and Translation of Skandhaparīkṣā, Prasannapadā Chapter 4
This paper consists of two sections. In the first part diplomatically edits six manuscripts of Candrakīrti’s Prasannapadā Chapter 4, which are the Potala manuscript, the Oxford manuscript, the Cambridge manuscript, the Tucci manuscript, the NGMPP manuscript and the Tokyo No.251 manuscript. The selection of the manuscripts based on the “manuscript description stemma” from Pro. Anne MacDonald’s In Clear Words The Prasannapadā, Chapter One. In the second part, gives a Sanskrit-English translation based on the six diplomatical editions.
Panel 2: Doctrines (Chair: Amelia Antolini; Co-discussant: Jackie Stone [2.1 + 2.2] & Eric Greene [2.3 + 2.4])
2.1 CHAN Chu Kwan: A Taxonomy for Interpreting Chinese Buddhist Philosophy
How should one interpret Chinese Buddhist philosophy? Interpretations of Chinese Buddhist philosophy are always subjected to two sets of criticisms. The first investigates whether the interpretations are Chinese, Buddhist or philosophical enough. The second follows and investigates what Chinese, Buddhist or philosophy are. These are worthy of investigation, but the three components are not always compatible or directly proportional to each other. And, for different purposes, interpreters have different weighting for each component. For example, in dealing with a slightly self-contradictory text, to be more philosophically constructive, an interpreter may inevitably be less textually faithful, resulting in a less Chinese or Buddhist interpretation. Similarly, to be more Chinese or Buddhist coherent, an interpretation may inevitably be less philosophically constructive and include less reference from contemporary philosophy. It is right to question whether the weighting is suitable for the corresponding purpose, but it is irrelevant to criticise it for being unsuitable for other purposes. These irrelevant criticisms due to the confusion of interpretation’s purpose are common as the underlying purposes of Chinese and Buddhist traditions are often significantly different from each other and those of western academic philosophy. Such confusion hinders the mutual understanding and contribution of world philosophy and Chinese Buddhist thought. This paper argues that the way to interpret Chinese Buddhist philosophy should depend on the interpretations’ purposes. With a brief case study of the recent interpretations of Zhiyi’s concept of Yinian Sanqian, it shows that critics may overlook an interpretation’s purpose and make irrelevant criticisms. It, then, develops a taxonomy of purpose with the possible relations between the three components – Chinese, Buddhist, and philosophy – to categorise interpretations and avoid irrelevant criticisms and confusion of interpretation’s purposes. It is hoped that the taxonomy could be further applied to other philosophical traditions and other fields in Buddhist Studies.
2.2 Yuchen LIANG: Being as Nothingness: Ontological Difference in the Concept of Nothingness in Chan Buddhism
Nothingness has always been a central topic for Chan Buddhism. Chan Buddhists are however also notoriously reluctant to define their key concepts, including nothingness. It is difficult to fit Chan nothingness into the one of the traditional Western metaphysical categories of nothingness envisioned by Kant and continuedly used by modern comparative philosophers such as Pang Pu and Yao Zhihua. Scholars like Yao attempt to make Chan nothingness relevant in Western metaphysics by assigning it to the category of “nothing as being”. However, doing so will lead to the trivialization of the usage of nothingness in Chan texts: Why emphasize nothing when it is just a special kind of being? In Chan, nothingness is reciprocal but not equivalent to being, a possibility outside of the imagination of traditional Western philosophers. I will show that this impossibility stems from traditional Western metaphysics’ failure to account for what Martin Heidegger described as “ontological difference”. Heidegger claims that being as the relationship between “beings as objects” is not an object itself, or in ordinary language, a nothing. For Heidegger nothing is being and being is nothing. This understanding treats nothing as a valuable concept in itself, making non-reductive appreciation of Chan nothingness possible.
2.3 SHI Zhirui釋知瑞: 天台圓教對《首楞嚴三昧經》修證內涵之解讀 | The Practice and Achievement Sequence of Śūraṃgamasamādhi from the View of Perfect Teaching of Tiantai
This paper aims to analyze the the practice and achievement sequence of the śūraṃgamasamādhi 首楞嚴三昧 demonstrated in the Śūraṃgamasamādhisūtra 首楞嚴三昧經translated by Kumārajīva. With ideas of six identities六即 in the Perfect Teaching 圓教 taught in Tiantai school, author clarifies some complicated and even inconsistent sentences appear in the content of the Śūraṃgamasamādhisūtra. These sentences involve different dimensions such as:
First, the reason that śūraṃgamasamādhi, Buddhahood, and prajñā are deemed as a whole.
Second, the reason that śūraṃgamasamādhi as dhyāna-pāramitā is perfectly integrated with other five pāramitās according to whether its principle or phenomena.
Third, the reason that śūraṃgamasamādhi conquers māras (demons) with an impartial mind which regards māra and Buddha are the same.
The former part of this paper discusses the theory of Perfect teaching, in which the contemplation of the Middle Way 中道觀 played a critical role in this sequence; the latter part discusses the employment of śūraṃgamasamādhi in teaching and converting māras.
This paper anticipates to draw a complete picture of śūraṃgamasamādhi respectively involving its essence, method of contemplation and realization. Besides, from this sequence based on the Perfect Teaching of Tiantai theory, śūraṃgamasamādhi shows its characteristics such as Buddhahood, the Middle Way and bravery.
2.4 ZHENG Yutong: 從李提摩太《起信論》英譯至鈴木禪：卡爾·榮格的禪學吸收進路
精神分析家榮格（C.G Jung）受禪宗影響頗深。前人研究主要關切鈴木禪與榮格理論的互滲，或有指出榮格（C.G Jung）對李提摩太（Richard, T.）譯本《大乘起信論》的理論吸收，然而更多流於表面地一筆帶過。本文嘗試填補學界這一空缺，擬從傳教士李提摩太《起信論》翻譯中對於「真如」、「一心二門」等概念的定義和補充，進一步探究李譯本對榮格早期佛學研究的影響及相適性，兼論《起信論》中各個層面的「不二觀」對榮格原型（Archetype）、自性（the Self）等概念生成發展的推動作用，以及日本禪中「覺悟」（Satori）之過程與榮格自性化過程之相似性，進而指出榮格意識與潛意識融合無二且追求整體性的精神分析理念與《起信論》核心有本質趨同性，亦完善了榮格對於鈴木禪的理解，以期從榮格對於禪宗「明心見性」之「覺悟」，探索對西方精神分析理念的推動作用。
Panel 3: From Dunhuang to Simsim: Media and the Transmission of Buddhism (Chair: Davide Zappulli; Discussant: Eugene Wang)
3.1 YANG Jiuhong: 敦煌佛教願文源流芻議
3.2 YANG He: 敦煌佛教戏剧写本生成路径研究
There are four ways to generate Dunhuang Buddhist drama scripts: the first is to adapt Buddhist Scripture stories, such as the prince Chengdao drama adapted by Sakya. The second is the art form of absorbing folk songs and dances, such as stepping on the rocking mother. The third is to combine the Buddhist sutra stories with the inherent picture reading and recitation in the Central Plains to create Buddhist dramas, such as Mulian drama. The fourth is to integrate oral literary forms such as the spoken and sung literature in the Central Plains and the spoken and sung literature in the western regions, and finally form a drama form that combines Chinese and Western styles. In the murals of Jiaohuang, we can further find more specific images of Buddhist opera, such as The Mogao Grottoes Xuda, which is confirmed by the prince Cheng Dao Jing (volume 2240) and the little Huang Gong Yang Zan (volume s.1497) Take the prince Bensheng story mural as many as 67. For example, the north wall of the niche in the east of the central column of cave 9, in front of the top of cave 419.
3.3 Olga Kienzler: Representation of the Pretas on the Wall Painting in Simsim Cave 41 and Their Possible Meaning within the Socio-Cultural and Economic System
On the inner wall of the right corridor of the central pillar cave 41 in Simsim (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China), is a kneeling monk with a bowl in front of the standing Buddha. Behind the monk, near a river, are pretas turning towards the Buddha and worshipping him. In Buddhist texts there are many stories about pretas that have been translated into a Western language. However, the story that might be represented here has not yet been translated. One of the stories dealing with pretas in Sanskrit and in Tibetan Mūlasarvāstivāda-vinaya may be depicted here. The rituals and instructions mentioned in Buddhist texts associated with pretas provide a picture of the socio-cultural and economic function of them. That leads to further ideas and assumptions about the function of the Kucha caves.
Panel 4: Practices (Chair: Olga Kiezner; Discussant: Barend ter Haar)
4.1 Zhujun Ma: Practicing Intimacy: Reconsidering the Gendered Implications of the Pilgrimage to the Goddess of Mount Tai in Late Imperial China (1368–1912)
The Goddess of Mount Tai has been one of the most popular deities in north China plain in the late imperial period (1368–1912). Women were strongly associated with her worship in popular depictions, which attributed this to her often mentioned efficacy in female reproduction and childrearing. Obscured behind a one-sided image of a mother goddess in charge of female reproduction, the greater complexity of the Goddess of Mount Tai’s images as well as her relationships with her devotees are yet to be fully reflected in current scholarship.
This article examines how pilgrimage practices are represented in the four precious scrolls about the Goddess of Mount Tai: Precious Scroll of the Efficacious Lady of Mount Tai (Lingying Taishan Niangniang baojuan 靈應泰山娘娘寶卷), Efficacious Precious Scroll of the Celestial Transcendent Sacred Mother of Mount Tai (Taishan Tianxian Shengmu Lingying baojuan 泰山天仙聖母靈應寶卷), Mount Tai Precious Scroll of the Origins of the Celestial Transcendent Sacred Mother (Tianxian Shengmu yuanliu Taishan baojuan 天仙聖母源留泰山寶卷), and Sea of Misery Precious Scroll of the Sacred Mother of Mount Tai (Taishan Shengmu Kuhai baojuan 泰山聖母苦海寶卷).
These precious scrolls about the Goddess of Mount Tai assign ample hands-on practices to cater to diverse audiences with differing levels of religious knowledge, commitment, and motivation. The precious scrolls present these practices in an intentionally specific way, which creates a symbolic parallel to the Goddess’s journey to become a goddess from a human girl in her origin story. Both female and male pilgrims are embraced in this parallel in their pilgrimage: they follow the Goddess’s footprints and replicate the Goddess’s practice through their own body. By engaging in the textual production and circulation of precious scrolls about the Goddess, devotees amplify, enhance, and spread the Goddess’s story and her message of saving all sentient beings. Intimacy is already prescribed in these practices recommended to audiences and pilgrims. When pilgrims follow these practices, they construct a personal, direct, intimate relationship with the Goddess.
Furthermore, by investigating how female protagonists are depicted in the precious scrolls, I showcase how women find a validated space for their knowledge in religious practices and female labor like embordering in the cult of the Goddess of Mount Tai. Through its nuanced view of femininity, the cult of the Goddess of Mount Tai serves as a religious resource for women to negotiate with the social expectations for their gender roles and to access the world and social networks outside the home. By imbuing female labor with a religious dimension, the cult of the Goddess enhances its value within the family and beyond. The Goddess is a source of power, which women borrow, embody, and self-legitimize to pursue transcendence beyond their socially conditioned roles.
4.2 WEI Zhaohuan:《文宣帝的佛舍利：北齊前期的信仰、王權與政局》(Buddha’s Śarīra of Emperor Wenxuan: Religions, Kingship and Politics in Early Northern Qi)
A Buddhist reliquary which was discovered under the site of Xiuding Temple in Anyang, was consecrated by Emperor Wenxuan and his royal members of Norhern Qi Dynasty in 554. The shape of the reliquary and the structure of its inscription were influenced by the foreign culture from India and Central Asia. This reliquary was placed in a royal monastery to which the Emperor attached great importance. These reflects the exotic and official nature of Buddhism in Northern Qi. The stūpa in which the relic was buried was called “ta po”, a direct transliteration of Indic Prakrit term “thuva”. And the stūpa was modelled on the famous Kushan Buddhist site of Cakra Stūpa, indicating Emperor Wenxuan’s emulation of King Kaniṣka and the propaganda of his status as a Cakravartin. The cult of stūpa, as a crucial part of the Emperor’s Buddhist kingship ideology, was widely practised in Northern Qi, implying a transcending of Emperor Wu of Liang. In terms of the background and motivation for the relic offerings, politically, Emperor Wenxuan gained a military advantage over the Southern Dynasties around 554; and he consolidated his imperial power by enlisting Gao yan, the Prince Pingyang, whose died wife and mother both supported Buddhism. Also at that time, Emperor Wenxuan had more enthusiasm for Buddhism, the compilation of Weishu Shilaozhi, the activities of eminent monks from Dilun School and the practice of Mahāparivārṇa Sūtra, all these promoted the spread of relic cult and stūpa worship. The choice of the day of the Buddha’s birthday by Emperor Wenxuan for the relic to be enshrined also had the effect of establishing a common connection of belief. The relic reflects the religions, kingship and politics in early Northern Qi, also help us to further understand the cultural exchanges between India and China in 6th century and the relic cult in Sui and Tang dynasties.
4.3 SHI Heyi 释合一 : 戒律在时空流转中的总持
4.4 LI Junyi (Victor): 神聖意識：聖典與聖地