《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第一卷‧第一期, 宁梵夫

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第一卷‧第一期(2018):61–88; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201804_1(1).0003
(本文属于专刊《佛教在西方》

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历史的转向:中国佛教游记如何改变西方对佛教的认识(The Historical Turn: How Chinese Buddhist Travelogues Changed Western Perception of Buddhism)

宁梵夫(Max DEEG
英国卡迪夫大学(Cardiff University, UK)

摘要(Abstract)直到19世纪初,西方关于佛教的信息充其量是残缺与模糊的。第一批研究印度原始资料的东方学者不得不依赖于用梵文书写的印度教文本(例如《往事书》),这些文本把佛陀描绘成印度教毗湿奴的化身。随着乔治·特努尔(George Turnour)等学者从斯里兰卡发现巴利语文本,以及詹姆斯·普林斯普斯(James Princeps)对阿育王铭文的解读,使该宗教的历史维度变得明显,这种情况从而发生了改变。佛陀的史实性以及他所创立的宗教的最终确认,从中国佛教旅行者(法显、玄奘、义净)的记述中得出的,他们曾行访过印度的重要佛教圣地,并收集了有关该宗教历史的其他信息。本文将讨论这些游记的第一批西方译本,以及它们在这一时期学术话语中的接受情况,并将指出它所引领的历史转向对佛教的研究与接受产生的强烈影响——在某种程度上开启了佛教研究作为一门学科的篇章。

Information about Buddhism was scarce and vague at best in the West until the beginning of the nineteenth century. The first Orientalists studying Indian sources had to rely on Hindu texts written in Sanskrit (e.g. Purāṇas) which portrayed the Buddha as an avatāra of the Hindu god Viṣṇu. The situation changed with the discovery of the Pāli texts from Śrī Laṅkā through scholars like George Turnour (1799–1843) and the decipherment of the Aśokan inscriptions through James Prinsep (1799–1840) by which the historical dimension of the religion became evident. The final confirmation of the historicity of the Buddha and the religion founded by him was taken, however, from the records of Chinese Buddhist travelers (Faxian, Xuanzang, Yijing) who had visited the major sacred places of Buddhism in India and collected other information about the history of the religion. This paper will discuss the first Western translations of these travelogues and their reception in the scholarly discourse of the period and will suggest that the historical turn to which it led had a strong impact on the study and reception of Buddhism—in a way the start of Buddhist Studies as a discipline.

关键词(Keywords):法显(Faxian)、玄奘(Xuanzang)、义净(Yijing)、威廉·琼斯(William Jones)、佛教游记(Buddhist travelogues)

 

关于作者:宁梵夫是英国卡迪夫大学(Cardiff University)历史、考古与宗教学院的佛教学教授,专精于佛教史及从英国向中亚、东亚的传播研究。他的研究兴趣广泛,包括亚洲的其他宗教,比如印度教、耆那教、道教、摩尼教与东方基督教等。他目前正在致力于重新英译玄奘的《大唐西域记》。他的近着包括:Miscellanae Nepalicae: Early Chinese Reports on Nepal: The Foundation Legend of Nepal in Its Trans-Himalayan Context (Lumbini: Lumbini International Research Institute, 2016); Religion in China: Major Concepts and Minority Positions (M. Deeg and B. Scheid eds, Wien: Verlag der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 2015); Das Lotos-Sūtra (Translation, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2009).

 

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