《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第二卷‧第一期, 何方耀

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第二卷‧第一期(2019):1–21; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201904_2(1).0001
(本文属于专刊《法显研究》

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《法显传》中“夏坐”记载特点及其原因分析(The Vārska Activities [xiazuo 夏坐] Recorded in the Faxian Account: Features and Reasons)

何方耀(HE Fangyao)
华南农业大学(South China Agricultural University)

摘要(Abstract):东晋求法僧法显所撰《法显传》详细记载了他西行求法途中的“夏坐”经历,从长安西行启程到回到山东青州,法显在传记中一共记载了自己旅途中八次夏坐经历。法显西行求法时间前后15年,一共记载了八次,即八年的夏坐,也就是说还有七年的夏坐活动他没有记载,而这没有记载夏坐的七年,恰好是他在摩竭陀国首都巴连弗邑、多摩梨帝国和师子国这三个他心目中的西天佛国所度过的时间。即凡属在印度及师子国寺庙居住下来,不再四处游走,他就不再记载夏坐之事,而当他处于旅行途中的时候他就会记载他夏坐的经历,法显这种笔法显然不能解释为毫无目的随意之举,一定有他背后的用意和目的。本文就试图对《法显传》中记载或不记载夏坐的现像加以解读,指出其目的、用意以及所反映的当时中土汉地戒律传播、持守的情况。

Faxian zhuan 法顯傳 [Account of Faxian], written by pilgrim Faxian 法顯 (337–422), records in detail his vārska (summer retreat)on a pilgrimage from China to India. In total, his account records 8 instances of vārska along the journey from the Chinese capital Chang’an to India by land and his return to Qingzhou 青州 in Shangdong province of China from India by a maritime route. Faxian only recorded 8 instances of vārska over the 15 years of his whole pilgrimage. This means that there were no records of vārska during the other 7 years when he was in the capital Pātaliputra of Magadha, Tāmralipti in India and Sri Lanka—the real Buddhist kingdoms in the West in Faxian’s eyes. When he stayed in the Buddhist monastery in Madyadewa (Central India) and Sri lanka, Faxian did not record his vārska activities (xiazuo 夏坐). Only when he left Central India and Sri Lanka and started his journey did he begin to record the vārska. Why did he do so? The author does not think this is a random move, and that there must be some special methods and goals behind this activity. In this paper the author interprets the phenomenon of both recorded and non-recorded vārska in the Fanxian zhuan and points out the aim, use, and how it reflected the situation that Buddhist Sila disseminated and complied with the Buddhist samgha in China.

关键词(Keywords):“夏坐”(vārska)、“边地”意识(Consciousness of Borderland)、律藏(Vinaya Pitaka)、求法(Pilgrimage)

 

关于作者:湖北荆州人,1961年出生,1990年获华中师范大学历史学硕士学位,2006年获得中山大学历史学博士,2005年获得历史学正教授职称。现任华南农业大学人文与法学学院副院长(主管科研)、哲学系主任,华南农业大学宗教与文化交流研究中心主任;华南师范大学历史文化学院特聘教授、博士生导师。主要从事宗教传播史特别是佛教历史文化、中西文化交流方面的研究工作,先后在《世界宗教研究》《中国宗教》《中山大学学报》等公开刊物和报刊上发表学术论文60多篇;独着合着《晋唐南海道求法高僧群体研究》(宗教文化,2008)、《晋唐南海丝路弘法高僧群体研究》《广东宗教简史》(上海文艺,2008)、《广东宗教志》《中华佛学通典》等有关宗教、历史、文化方面的著作近十部。

 

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