《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第一卷‧第一期, 葛然诺

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第一卷‧第一期(2018):89–131; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201804_1(1).0004
(本文属于专刊《佛教在西方》

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从美藏三尊日本兜跋毗沙门像管窥毗沙门崇拜在东亚的兴起Tobatsu Bishamon: Three Japanese Statues in the United States and an Outline of the Rise of This Cult in East Asia

葛然诺(Phyllis GRANOFF)
耶鲁大学(Yale University)

摘要(Abstract兜跋毗沙门天是日本对毗沙门天的独特称谓,不见于汉语文献。在佛经和传说中,毗沙门天都被描述为富贵长寿之神,也是守护佛法和国土的战神。在图像学上特点是由地天女神撑托,身穿盔甲,头戴多边宝冠,冠有鸟形,两肩有焰轮,胸前有日月轮。本文的目的是考索毗沙门信仰在东亚的兴起与及其根源。通过分析日本、中国、中亚、西藏、印度以及伊朗的图像和文献资料,笔者指出,于阗的毗沙门造像即是日本所见兜跋造像。在于阗,其崇拜与当地神圣王权紧密结合在一起。从这一线索入手,笔者发现毗沙门信仰有两处神格的融合,一为伊朗的王权之神法罗,二为印度象征财富的混合神格“散脂大将-俱毗罗-毗沙门天”。其图像学特征均可以由此得以解释。在向汉地和日本传播的过程中,除保留了财富和守护的神格,又融入了地方民间信仰;在艺术造型上,也逐渐脱去异域色彩,迎合本土审美要求。

Tobatsu bishamonten 兜跋毘沙門天 is the Japanese name for Vaiśravaṇa and is not found in Chinese sources. In Buddhist sūtras and legends, Vaiśravaṇa is generally portrayed as the deity of wealth and longevity, as well as a warrior god that protects the dharma and the sovereignty of kingdom. In terms of iconography, Vaiśravaṇa is identifiable by the adjoining Goddess Pṛthvī, the armor, the multi-sided bird-shaped crown, the flamed wheel behind two shoulders, and the wheels of sun and moon on the chest. The purpose of this article is to investigate the rise of Vaiśravaṇa in East Asia and the historical root of the East Asian Vaiśravaṇa. By analyzing the iconographical and textual sources in Japan, China, Central Asia, Tibet, India and Iran, I postulate that the Japanese Tobatsu bishamonten is related to the Khotanese Vaiśravaṇa. In Khotan, the worship of Vaiśravaṇa is closely associated with the royal power—a clue which I will investigate in order to show that Vaiśravaṇa combines the profile of two deities: Pharo, the god of Persian royalty and Pāñcika-Kuvera-Vaiśravaṇa, the Indian god of wealth. This postulate could explain the particularities in Vaiśravaṇa’s iconography. Moreover, as the Vaiśravaṇa cult spread to China and Japan, it not only preserved its association with wealth and protection, but also incorporated folk beliefs. In its iconography, Vaiśravaṇa also gradually shed its foreign characteristics and adapted to local aesthetics.

关键词(Keywords):兜跋毗沙门天(Tobatsu bishamonten)、毗沙门天崇拜(Vaiśravaṇa cult)、散脂大将(Pāñcika)、法罗(Pharo)、神圣王权(sacred sovereignty)

 

关于作者:自2004年7月1日任耶鲁大学教授。她曾在加拿大安大略省汉密尔顿的麦克马斯特大学任教,并曾在法国社会科学高等研究院,美国加州大学伯克莱分校和哈佛大学访学或演讲。她研究印度诸古典宗教——佛教,印度教,耆那教,并在印度艺术和文学领域屡有著述发表。她的研究兴趣包括当代印度文学,她出版了孟加拉语和奥里亚语短篇小说的翻译。她是 Journal of Indian Philosophy (《印度哲学杂志》)的主编。她最近的出版物包括 The Victorious Ones: Jain Images of Perfection,此论文集附有她在鲁宾艺术博物馆策划的耆那教艺术展。联同篠原亨一(Koichi Shinohara),她合编了许多书,包括 Images in Asian Religions(《亚洲宗教中的图像》)和 Pilgrims, Patrons and Place (《朝圣者、功德主与圣地》) 。最近他们二人编辑了关于亚洲宗教中罪恶的问题的论文集,很快将会在荷兰的Brill (博睿)出版。她目前的研究项目包括研究耆那教和佛教僧侣关于疾病的戒律以及对美国博物馆藏品中耆那教手稿的全面研究。她是 Jain Heritage Preservation Project(耆那教文化遗产保护计划)的高级顾问,该项目由德克萨斯州达拉斯的 Jiv Daya Foundation 管理。

 

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