《华林国际佛学学刊》:电子期刊 第一卷‧第二期, 张小刚

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《华林国际佛学学刊》第一卷‧第二期(2018):317–354; https://dx.doi.org/10.6939/HIJBS.201810_1(2).0009
(本文属于专刊《佛教艺术》

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于阗白衣立佛瑞像研究——从敦煌壁画中的于阗白衣立佛瑞像图谈起Khotanese Images of the White-Robed Standing Buddha: The Case of Khotanese Buddha Images in Dunhuang Murals

 

张小刚(Zhang Xiaogang)
敦煌研究院(Dunhuang Research Academy)

摘要(Abstract):在敦煌瑞像图中,有一些身着白色袈裟的于阗立佛瑞像,这些造像多数在背光中布满化佛或者头上戴冠系带。斯坦因(A. Stein)在中国新疆和田地区法哈特伯克亚伊拉克(Farhad Beg Yailaki)遗址发现了白衣立佛的两块木板画,在热瓦克佛塔寺院则发现了两尊在背光中布满化佛的大立佛。本世纪初在达玛沟托普鲁克墩1 号佛寺遗址又发现了在背光中布满化佛的白衣大立佛,是敦煌绘画中相关造像的原型。新疆克孜尔等石窟中也发现了在背光中布满化佛的立佛像,这种造像样式,可能与舍卫城神变故事对佛教造像的影响有密切关系,在犍陀罗艺术中也有这种造像形式的原型。在印度阿旃陀石窟第10 窟石柱表面壁画上,也有5–8 世纪绘制的白衣佛。由此我们能够了解白衣佛造像从印度到西域,再到敦煌的传播情况。

In Dunhuang murals containing ruixiang 瑞像 (‘Auspicious Images of Buddha’), some are Khotanese images which portray Buddha as in a standing position, clad in a white robe, filled with ‘transformation Buddhas’(Ch. huafo 化佛)in the background halo, or wearing a crown-like headband. Aurel Stein discovered, in the Farhad Beg Yailaki ruins in Khotan, two wooden planks with the imagery of white-robed standing Buddhas; and has also discovered, in the Rawak Stūpa, a statue of white-robed standing Buddha. At the beginning of this century, another white-robed standing Buddha that has ‘transformation Buddhas’ in the background halo, was discovered in a monastery relic (No.1) in Toplukdong; it is the prototype for the related images in Dunhuang. Moreover, in the Kizil Grottos in Xinjiang was also unearthed a standing Buddha filled with ‘transformation Buddhas’ in the background halo. Overall, this kind of portrayal of Buddha may be influenced by the story about the miracles that Buddha performed in Shravasti. A similar style could also be observed in the Gandhāran art. In the stone pillar in Cave 10 in Ajantas Grottos in India, we could also find the white-robed buddhas created from the fifth to eighth century. By studying these cases, we could understand the transmission of the white-robed Buddha from India to Western Regions and to Dunhuang.

关键词(Keywords):于阗(Khotan)、敦煌壁画(Dunhuang murals)、瑞像(auspicious images)、白衣佛(white-robed buddhas)

 

关于作者:(1977–),湖北武汉人,历史学博士,敦煌研究院研究馆员、学术委员会委员、考古研究所所长,中国考古学会理事,中国敦煌吐鲁番学会理事,西北师范大学敦煌学院客座教授, 《创意设计源》杂志编委,酒泉市领军人才,主要研究方向为石窟考古与佛教美术史。曾赴日本、印度、法国、英国、西班牙、意大利、吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦、乌兹别克斯坦、阿富汗及中国香港和台湾等多个国家或地区进行学术交流与考察,2008–2010年受聘为日本东京艺术大学东洋美术史专业客座研究员,2016年6–7月在法国远东学院东亚文明研究中心访学。已出版专著2部,在国家权威或核心期刊上发表论文30余篇,参加20余次国际学术会议,主持或参与10余项国家或省部级课题或项目,代表性著作有《敦煌佛教感通画研究》(60万字)等。

 

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